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GREAT LAKES 
NAVAL TRAINING STATION 



F RANCIS BUZZELL 





THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



GIFT OF 



COMMODORE BYRON MCCANDLESS 



THE GREAT LAKES 
NAVAL TRAINING STATION 



THE GREAT LAKES 
NAVAL TRAINING STATION 

A HISTORY 



BY 

FRANCIS BUZZELL 

Wartime Editor of "The Great Lakes Recruit" and Historian 
of the Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Naval Districts 



ILLUSTRATED FROM PHOTOGRAPHS 




BOSTON 

SMALL, MAYNARD & COMPANY 
PUBLISHERS 



Copyright, 1919, 

BY SMALL, MAYNARD & COMPANY 
(INCORPORATED) 



V 



The author was given permission 
to prepare this history by Secretary 
Daniels. Therefore, in this sense, it 
is the official history of the Great 
Lakes Naval Training Station. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PACK 

I GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION . . . ; w t .i . i 

II GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 27 

III THE SUPPLY DISBURSING DEPARTMENTS ... 48 

IV THE STATION BUILDERS 65 

V THE HOSPITAL AND REGIMENTAL DISPENSARIES . 75 

VI THE "DETENTION" AND APPRENTICE SEAMEN 

REGIMENTS 89 

VII THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 108 

VIII PAGEANT DAYS AND SPECIAL REVIEWS . . . 135 

IX THE GREAT LAKES' "LIBERTY" BAND . . . 143 

X GREAT LAKES' ATHLETIC RECORD 153 

XI THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS . . . . .171 

XII ENTERTAINING THE "GOBS" , 200 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Thirty-five Thousand Great Lakes Sailors . . Frontispiece 

PAGE 

Thousands of Sailors form a living "Vive la France" . . 24 

Captain W. A. Moffett giving a message to his Orderly . 24 

The Main Entrance to Great Lakes ..... 24 

Instructors in the Main Rigging Loft 25 

Captain Moffett and his Staff lead Liberty Loan Parade in 

Chicago 25 

A Destroyer of the Land Fleet 25 

The Supply Storage in the Main Drill Hall .... 62 
The Supply Officer, Lieutenant-Commander H. B. Worden, 

and his Staff 62 

A Company Mess Hall 62 

The Firemen's Classroom 63 

A Regimental Street of Barracks ...... 63 

The Machinists' Mates Class 63 

Captain H. E. Odell and Lieutenant-Commander H. F. Hull 

with Medical Officers attached to the Hospital . . 86 

The Interior of a Hospital Ward 86 

The Board of Medical Survey 86 

Ensign P. B. Riley, Commanding Officer of Outgoing Deten- 
tion, and his Assistants 87 

"Still" Practice with Field Guns 87 

Waiting for the Call to "Shove Off" 87 

Bluejacket Signalmen on the Bridge of a Regimental Head- 
quarters' Building 114 

Practice in the "Dry Land Boats" 114 

" Deck Seamanship " Practice 114 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

.'AGE 

Gunners' Mates Practising Loading 115 

Ready for Cutter Practice 115 

Cutter Drill 115 

Instructors in Officer Material School 132 

At Work on a Flying Boat ....... 132 

A Miniature Flyer Designed by the Students . . . 132 

One of the Famous " Singing Squares " 133 

Presentation of the Colors 133 

A Review on a Pageant Day 133 

The "Rookie "Band 150 

Lieutenant Sousa and a Section of the Great Lakes Band . 150 
A Detachment of the Great Lakes Band Heading a Parade 

in Chicago 150 

Secretaries of the Y. M. C. A. going through Military 

Formations 151 

M. H. Bickham, General Y. M. C. A. Secretary . . .151 

The Corps of Chaplains 151 

Secretaries of the American Red Cross at Great Lakes . 182 

Interior of the Jolly Tar Club 182 

The Reading Room at Red Cross House . . . .182 



THE GREAT LAKES 
NAVAL TRAINING STATION 



THE GREAT LAKES 
TRAINING STATION 

CHAPTER I 

GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 

THIS is the story of America's Jack and the 
Beanstalk; of America's Middle-Western blue- 
jackets and the little naval training station 
which so suddenly grew to be the largest and most 
efficient in the world, far outstripping in the magnitude 
and multiplicity of its achievement all other training 
camps, whether military or naval. 

Just why the naval training station at Great Lakes 
grew to be the most productive in the world just why 
this astounding development of something naval should 
take place a thousand miles from salt water may still 
be a matter of considerable astonishment to the seaboard 
sections of the country. 

But the great Middle West was not astonished, nor 
were Captain William A. Moffett and his staff. For 
the great Middle West, sending its maturer sons into the 
Army, gave its youth, its boys just out of high school, its 
boys on the threshold of manhood, to the Navy. And 
thus giving, the great Middle West saw no reason why 
its own naval training station, located on one of its own 
great inland seas, should not become the most important, 
the most productive, in the world. 



2 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Tremendously energizing though this spirit was, it 
could not alone account, however, for Great Lakes be- 
coming the Navy's main source of man-power. The 
youth of the Middle West might have gone to the sea- 
board for its apprenticeship; Great Lakes might have 
become only a mere outfitting depot for naval recruits 
from Illinois and the few surrounding states, instead of 
an establishment capable of quartering, feeding and 
training as high as 50,000 men at a time, which was its 
status late in the summer of 1918. 

That this didn't happen; that Great Lakes became 
in the words of Secretary Daniels the patriotic capital 
of the Central West was due most directly to the fore- 
sight and untiring energy of Captain W. A. Moffett 
the Commandant whose policy of refusing to include 
"can't" in his vocabulary, or to tolerate its use by his 
subordinates, caused to be overcome obstacle after 
obstacle that seemed insurmountable. 

Captain Moffett realized what was going to happen in 
the Middle West, arose to the occasion, and boomed it 
along. It all seems quite obvious now, but, like all ob- 
vious things, it wouldn't have happened at Great Lakes 
just as it did, had not the right man been at hand as com- 
mandant. Captain Moffett had his fingers on the pulse 
of the Middle West; he knew what was going to happen 
and rushed preparations. When Washington asked 
him how many men he could take care of and train, he 
answered in detail and convincingly. 

Less than a week after the United States entered the 
World War the youth of the Middle West began to flow 
into Great Lakes. They came in long trainloads. 
They came from as far west as Denver and from as far 
east as Pittsburg; they came from Galveston, Texas; 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 3 

from Bismarck, North Dakota; from Duluth, Minne- 
sota; they came from all the big and little cities, from all 
the towns, from nearly every crossroad, in an ever- 
increasing flow. 

But Great Lakes, designed to accommodate not more 
than 1500 apprentice seamen, was not swamped. This 
is the astonishing part of it Great Lakes was not 
swamped ! 

The great brick buildings of the permanent station 
became, in those first few days, merely the center, the 
nucleus, of a great tented city of America's greatest 
City of Youth. The difficulties met with and overcome 
in obtaining the tents need not be entered into here. 
The important fact is that they were obtained, more than 
6000 of them, and that each tent was provided with three 
iron cots, and each cot with sufficient blankets. Out 
of the welter of rushed preparation soon emerged a well- 
defined plan for expansion, and it was the rapidity with 
which this development took place that made Great 
Lakes the largest naval training station in the world. 

For the moment, let us review the Great Lakes Naval 
Training Station as it was two or three months before 
America's entry into the World War. 

At the beginning of 1917 Great Lakes comprised 
thirty-three buildings of permanent brick construction, 
located on one hundred and sixty-seven acres of land. 
The officers attached to the Station were : Captain W. 
A. Moffett, Commandant; Lieutenant L. N. McNair, 
Executive Officer; Lieutenant Tracy McCauley, Public 
Works, Communication and Engineer Officer; Lieuten- 
ant C. S. Roberts, head of the Department of Education 
and Athletics, and District Enrolling Officer ; Assistant 
Paymaster R. S. Robertson, Disbursing and Commissary 



4 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Officer; Paymaster Farwell, Supply Officer; Surgeon C. 
E. Ryder, Medical Officer; Assistant Surgeon N. R. 
Sullivan, Assistant Medical Officer; Assistant Surgeon 
Meyer, Dentist; Chaplain Frank Thompson, Chaplain; 
four medical officers attached to the Naval Hospital, lo- 
cated on the Station but under the jurisdiction of the 
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, and four ensigns for 
instruction in academic subjects. In addition to the 
above commissioned officers there were five warrant 
Officers: Chief Boatswain Martin Fritman, Drill Of- 
ficer; Boatswain V. C. Carpenter, Boatswain Depart- 
ment ; a machinist and a carpenter attached to the Public 
Works Department; and one pay clerk. Immediately 
upon the declaration of war, Lieutenant McCauley and 
three of the ensigns were detached and sent to sea. 
The normal complement of recruits was approximately 
one thousand men. The regular course of training, 
covering a period of from four to six months, was such 
as was usually given apprentice seamen, and there were 
no special schools. In 1916 the average number of re- 
cruits received at Great Lakes each month was two hun- 
dred and twenty, or less than ten recruits a day. In 
January, 1917, the number of recruits received jumped 
to six hundred and eighteen, due to the stimulation of 
enlistments in the Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Naval 
Districts caused by the passage of the Reserve Act, 
which created the Naval Reserve Force. During this 
month the average number of recruits received was 
about twenty per day. If a batch of twenty-five men 
were received, it was considered a crowd. In February, 
1917, the recruits received numbered 922; in March, 
1364; and in April the month of the declaration of war 
9027. 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 5 

Contrast the above facts with the following and you 
will get an idea of Great Lakes' tremendous growth 
a growth so astounding, so replete with the accomplish-, 
ment of the seemingly impossible, that it will never be 
forgotten by those who witnessed it. On November 
n, 1918 the day the armistice was signed Great 
Lakes was going at top speed. It had spread itself over 
1200 acres of land, and comprised 775 buildings. Nine 
of these buildings were great drill halls, in each of 
which an entire regiment of 1726 men could drill in 
regimental formation. Its population on that date was 
in the neighborhood of 45,000 men, and its administra- 
tive and operating personnel consisted of approximately 
seven hundred commissioned and warrant officers, and 
eight thousand enlisted men. Of the commissioned of- 
ficers comparatively few belonged to the regular navy 
establishment, the greater number being men who were 
recruited into the Naval Reserve Force from the ranks 
of business and professions of the Middle West. Some 
of these men came into the service as commissioned of- 
ficers ; others entered Great Lakes as "gobs" and worked 
their way up to administrative positions. Therefore, 
the great Middle West can honestly claim credit not only 
for providing the Navy with the best and most efficiently 
trained portion of its man-power, but also for producing 
many of the officers who, under Captain W. A. Mof- 
fett's magnificent leadership, were so instrumental in 
making Great Lakes an example of wonderwork that 
drew astonished admiration from the many representa- 
tives of the Allied countries who visited it in 1918. 
During the actual war period from April 6, 1917 to 
November n, 1918 Great Lakes received for training 
125,000 men. During this period 96,779 men were 



6 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

transferred to sea, and the special schools, organized to 
provide intensive training and instruction for recruits 
who could qualify for quick advancement, graduated 
17,356 men. 

This is an achievement, for which the great Middle 
West can pat itself upon the back and chuckle with glee. 
For when Great Lakes was established by an act of 
Congress, April 27, 1904, on a site donated by the Com- 
mercial Club of Chicago, the project was laughed at as 
a glaring example of Congressional "pork." It was 
still being laughed at when the completed station was 
officially opened by President Taft on October 28, 1911. 
The idea of a naval training station a thousand miles in- 
land may still have resulted in a laugh as late as the be- 
ginning of 1917. 

When the United States entered the World War, 
things had to happen quickly particularly in the Navy. 
The way to Europe had to be kept clear, and this was the 
Navy's job. The Navy, therefore, couldn't build its 
training camps, and then, when the camps were com- 
pleted, call its recruits for training. Instead, it had to 
receive its recruits as rapidly as they volunteered, 
provide temporary quarters for them, train them 
in the rudiments of seamanship, as well as in military 
practice, and at the same time plan to build substantial 
cantonments adequate for the demands of a war the 
duration of which could not be estimated all of which 
applies particularly to the situation at Great Lakes when 
war was declared. 

Officers were scarce, discouragingly so. Imagine, if 
you can, the task that loomed before Captain W. A. 
Moffett, and the handicap with which he started. He 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 7 

had only eight officers of the line on his entire staff, and 
four of these were detached and sent to sea immediately 
war was declared. The Navy Department not only de- 
tached these officers, but many experienced petty officers 
as well, and then found itself unable to provide others 
to carry on the work at Great Lakes. So Captain Mof- 
f ett was authorized to enroll both officers and men in the 
Naval Reserve Force. Men who had had previous ex- 
perience in the Merchant Marine or in any military 
organization were examined and commissioned. Petty 
officers were invaluable and scarce the demand for 
them had somehow to be met. Chief petty officers who 
had been company commanders under normal conditions 
became regimental commanders, and every petty officer 
of the line on the Station was made a company com- 
mander. But even this didn't suffice, so a training camp 
for petty officers was immediately established. Picked 
men from the apprentice seamen companies were sent to 
this camp for a period of intensive training, and within 
a short time Great Lakes was provided with a steadily 
increasing number of competent company commanders, 
who did excellent work in the handling and training of 
thousands upon thousands of recruits. More than one 
hundred of these company commanders, it may be in- 
teresting to know, passed the required examinations be- 
fore the United States had been in the war many months 
and became commissioned officers, serving both at Great 
Lakes and on board the fighting ships. It is a record 
of which Great Lakes may be proud that from the very 
beginning it developed and trained its own officer and 
petty officer material. 

On April i, 1917 six days before the declaration of 



8 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

war Great Lakes was already overcrowded, there be- 
ing 2500 men on the Station at that time. And during 
April, 9027 recruits were received. 

The section of the Great Lakes Naval Training Sta- 
tion known as "Incoming Detention" was, naturally, one 
of the first to become congested. It consisted at that 
time of a number of brick structures at the southwest 
corner of the reservation, and could accommodate ap- 
proximately five hundred men for the total detention 
period of twenty-one days. It was complete in every de- 
tail for handling this number of men, having in its brick 
structures everything essential in a detention camp. 
But now five hundred recruits were being received daily 
and provision had to be made for them. Tents sufficient 
to afford quarters for approximately 1800 men were 
raised on every available spot in Incoming Detention 
except the drill field, and even then it became necessary 
to transfer men to other sections of the Station at the 
expiration of two or three days, or immediately after 
they were outfitted and had received one inoculation and 
one typhoid prophylaxis. 

Then these other sections of the Great Lakes Naval 
Training Station became congested in their turn and 
several thousand men had to be transferred to the Re- 
ceiving Ships on the eastern coast within a few days and 
with practically no training. For the first couple of 
weeks of the war, Great Lakes was, therefore, only a re- 
ceiving and distribution center instead of a training 
camp which it might have continued to be for many 
months had it not been that Captain W. A. Moffett, with 
boundless energy, cheerfulness and resourcefulness, 
spurred on his small staff of officers. Many times the 
immediate outlook was dark, but within less than a 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION ; 9 

month sufficient tents had been received to house thou- 
sands of men and regular training was resumed. 

In ordinary times it was considered a good day's work 
completely to outfit the twenty-five recruits who might 
be received on a single day, but when they came by hun- 
dreds it became necessary to adopt new methods of pro- 
cedure or be hopelessly swamped. When consideration 
is given to the fact that forty-four pieces were included 
in each clothing allowance, that each piece of clothing 
had to be stenciled, that it was necessary to furnish each 
recruit with a hammock, mattress, mattress cover, two 
blankets, and the necessary gear for stringing ham- 
mocks, and that requisite entries had to be made in the 
receipt and transfer of all recruits, it can be seen what 
an enormous amount of continuous detail and laborious 
work was necessary properly to handle the number of 
men who daily reported at Great Lakes. 

To expedite this work, one of the permanent struc- 
tures in Incoming Detention was set aside for receiving 
the recruits, and holes were cut through the walls to- 
make all the dormitories connecting. By this arrange- 
ment a recruit could enter this building as a civilian and 
leave it as a sailor, fully outfitted. In the first section 
he received a complete outfit of clothing, in the next 
every one of the forty-four pieces was stenciled, and in 
the third section he received his blankets, mattress and 
hammock. This system worked excellently, as many 
as one thousand men being thus outfitted in twenty-four 
hours. 

The clothing supply, however, being limited, became 
depleted in the first few weeks of the war, and fresh 
supplies were delayed because of transportation difficul- 

^s, due to the congested condition of railroad termi- 



io THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

nals. Therefore, for a certain period, it became impos- 
sible to outfit the new men as soon as they arrived on the 
Station. 

Transportation troubles also interfered with the 
prompt delivery of much-needed tents. Every one of 
the permanent barracks at Great Lakes housed double 
its capacity; half the men quartered in each barrack 
swinging in hammocks, and the other half sleeping be- 
low them on cots. The great drill hall of the permanent 
station and the instruction building were also used as 
barracks. 

The messing (feeding) of the men was accomplished 
by setting three different messes for each meal in the 
Main Mess Hall, and accommodating two thousand men 
at each mess, thus making equipment designed to feed 
not more than fifteen hundred men at a meal provide for 
six thousand. The remainder of the men were taken 
care of at the Galley in Incoming Detention. 

During these first weeks every officer and every en- 
listed man permanently detailed on the Station worked 
eighteen and twenty hours a day. While part of the 
operating organization was busy handling the flow of 
recruits, other parties were working day and night drain- 
ing land and laying out tented camps, the tents being 
put up and filled with men as fast as they were received. 
The Naval Militia organizations of Minnesota, Mis- 
souri, and the western district of Michigan, reported at 
Great Lakes within the first month of the war. They 
were quartered in tents erected on a plot of land imme- 
diately north of the Main Station, and, along with the 
thousands of other recruits who flowed into Great 
Lakes, endured many hardships. This was the begin- 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION n 

ning of Camp Paul Jones, which became the largest 
tented section on the Station during the summer of 1917. 
During that summer it contained more than five thou- 
sand tents. Mess for the men in this camp was pre- 
pared in temporary wooden galleys located along the 
edge of the bluff looking out over Lake Michigan. The 
service was cafeteria style, the men forming in lines, 
three hundred and fifty for each galley, and having their 
plates filled as they passed by. In fair weather they ate 
on the ground, and in wet weather shelters were erected 
out of old tents and tent flies to protect them. The 
drinking water was piped from the Main Station and 
supplied to the various companies through hydrants lo- 
cated at the ends of the company streets. Every other 
morning the men were marched to the barracks of the 
Main Station for a bath. During the day buckets were 
used for washing purposes. Camp Paul Jones was ideal 
in dry weather, but when it rained, and it rained con- 
siderably in the spring of 1917, hip-boots, of which 
there were but few in stock, became an important part 
of a man's uniform. The ground around the galleys 
and in the regimental streets was a sea of soggy clay in 
bad weather, and the men were obliged to stand up in 
about six inches of this to eat their meals. 

When Camp Paul Jones was well under way, with 
adequate galleys, garbage disposal apparatus, and la- 
trines established, the reorganization of the personnel 
was undertaken. This was accomplished by dividing 
the men quartered in Camp Paul Jones into regiments 
of 1726 men each. Before the end of May, the First, 
Second and Third regiments had been thus organized, 
and the men put under intensive training. Cinder roads 



12 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

were then built, the ground was leveled, and every tent 
was provided with a wooden deck. 

By this time the number of men at Great Lakes had 
grown so large and the lack of officers was still so great 
that the Executive Officer, Lieutenant Lawrence Mc- 
Nair, was placed in direct command of Camp Paul 
Jones. Before the increase in population Lieutenant 
McNair had had general direction of the drilling and 
instruction of recruits, as well as the general direction 
and operation of the entire Station under the Command- 
ant. The Drill Officer, Chief Boatswain Martin Frit- 
man, was given charge of all incoming recruits and the 
men on the Main Station. And the actual functions 
of Executive Officer were, for the time-being, assumed 
by the Commandant personally. 

Ways and means for the proper handling and dis- 
patch of business were still regrettably inadequate and 
every department at Great Lakes suffered. Only by the 
most untiring efforts of the officers and the enlisted men 
who assisted them were the setbacks which continually 
occurred alleviated. 

By the middle of June Great Lakes had its first breath 
and Captain Moffett and his staff had thoroughly ana- 
lyzed all apparent difficulties and devised methods to 
overcome them. The training camp for petty officers, 
organized to turn out much-needed company command- 
ers, was in full swing; the Hospital Corps Training 
School, opened in March with a class of twenty hospital 
apprentices, had seven hundred and fifty apprentices 
under instruction; the Signal and Radio Schools had 
grown so large that they had to be separated ; the Great 
Lakes Naval Band had grown until it contained two 
hundred and fifty musicians; the aviation school had 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 13 

been started with two officers and a few enlisted men; 
miles of tented streets had been laid out ; men were being 
sent to the fighting ships in great train loads; and the 
various departments were becoming more thoroughly 
organized and broadened in their scope. 

And while all this was going on, Captain W. A. Mof- 
fett, with unflagging energy and the assistance of all 
the experts he could lay hands upon, worked out the 
plans for Great Lakes' War-time development. This, 
too, is another achievement that Great Lakes can be 
proud of that, unassisted by Washington, it formu- 
lated and developed to the minutest detail, its own plans 
for the expansion that resulted in its becoming the larg- 
est and most thoroughly equipped training camp in the 
world. 

Data was obtained regarding all the army canton- 
ment plans and compared with the particular needs of 
a naval organization such as Great Lakes. A number 
of tentative plans were drawn up, and these were criti- 
cized freely by all the officers concerned at Great Lakes, 
as well as by the different bureaus in the Navy Depart- 
ment. The plan which was finally approved took the 
Main Station as a regimental unit and duplicated it. in 
frame buildings, each duplication being a regimental 
unit designed to be complete in itself, with its own ad- 
ministration and instruction building, drill hall, galley 
and mess halls, dispensary, and heating pknt. Each 
regimental unit accommodated 1726 men. 

Why Captain W. A. Moffett adopted the regimental 
unit as the basis for the expansion of Great Lakes is 
quite obvious when once explained. It wasn't possible 
to determine just when the war would end, nor how 
great the Navy's demand for man-power would be. 



i 4 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Had Great Lakes been expanded simply as an enlarge- 
ment, a spreading out of the Main Station, which is the 
way that cities grow each additional demand for en- 
largement would have resulted in many complications 
and readjustments. Captain Moffett and his staff 
planned for just such a contingency, the result being that 
Great Lakes was able, simply by adding regimental unit 
after regimental unit, to multiply itself to any size the 
war demanded without any radical change in anything 
previously constructed. How important this was will 
be shown later. 

The United States had not been in the World War 
more than a month before authority was received from 
Washington to lease land and prepare plans. In May, 
E. H. Clark, a Chicago architect, was enrolled in the 
Naval Reserve force as a junior grade lieutenant, and 
he at once enlisted several young Chicago draughts- 
men. Within two weeks, working day and night, this 
architectural staff had completed the plans for seven 
regimental units for regular training purposes, and two 
regimental units to be used as incoming detention camps. 

Captain Moffett, accompanied by Rear-Admiral Al- 
bert Ross, Commandant at Great Lakes during the con- 
struction of the original Station, took the plans to Wash- 
ington to have them approved. The result was permis- 
sion to construct wooden cantonments to accommodate 
20,000 men, and contracts were let for the construction 
of Camps Perry, Dewey, Farragut and Decatur. As 
planned and carried out, Camp Perry comprised four 
regimental units and Camp Dewey, three regimental 
units. Camps Farragut and Decatur, designed as in- 
coming detention camps, each consisted of one regi- 
mental unit. At the same time a contract was let for 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 15 

the construction of sufficient buildings to give the Main 
Hospital a capacity of fourteen hundred beds and pro- 
vide adequate quarters for its operating personnel. The 
plans for the expansion of the hospital were prepared 
by the Bureaus of Medicine and Surgery and Yards and 
Docks. 

At about the same time Captain Moffett received an 
appropriation for the construction of Camp Ross, a 
regimental unit to be used as an outgoing detention 
camp. The buildings in this regimental unit were of 
galvanized iron and of the portable type, which made 
it possible to complete this camp and have it ready for 
occupation while the other camps were still under 
way. 

The actual construction of Camps Perry, Dewey, 
Decatur and Farragut commenced early in July. Fields 
that were covered with a crop of corn one week were 
covered by a mass of buildings and building material the 
next; barracks, drill halls, galleys and mess halls, and 
instruction buildings sprang up like mushrooms. The 
greatest difficulty experienced was that of transporting 
and hauling material about the various camps. This 
difficulty was overcome by utilizing the services of the 
12,000 men at that time at Great Lakes. Owing to the 
untiring energy of these men, who, although new to 
discipline, were willing workers and seemed never to 
tire, lumber piles, brick, machinery, plumbing material, 
and building fixtures were moved from place to place 
as if by magic. 

By the end of September, 1917, Camp Farragut was 
completed, and on October 6 it became the main Incom- 
ing Detention Camp, and the Incoming Detention execu- 
tive headquarters was moved into it. A short time later 



1 6 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Camp Decatur was completed, thus adding another 
regimental unit to Incoming Detention. 

In October the seven regimental units contained in 
Camps Perry and Dewey were ready for occupation. 
With the first sustained spell of cold weather which oc- 
curred the latter part of this month, the appearance of 
Great Lakes underwent a change. The miles of tented 
streets so familiar to the thousands upon thousands of 
visitors who thronged the Station on Pageant Days dur- 
ing the summer months of 1917 disappeared over night. 
When the order was given, the thousands of men folded 
up their tents and stole away into barracks that were 
double-floored and sealed, and provided with steam heat 
and hot and cold running water. Incidentally, they dis- 
carded the military cot for the sailor's hammock. By 
the first of November practically every man on the Sta- 
tion had been moved into barracks. 

Two features of great importance stand out promi- 
nently in the construction of these wooden cantonments. 
One of these was the regimental unit system, the purpose 
of which has already been explained, and the other was 
the comprehensive, thorough manner in which each 
separate regimental unit was further subdivided to make 
doubly sure that any kind of contagion could be quickly 
and effectively segregated. 

Great Lakes, as Captain Moffett planned its expan- 
sion, was not only to become the largest naval training 
station in the world, but one that was as contagion-proof 
as the particular conditions would allow. Captain Mof- 
fett knew that the boys just finishing high school, the 
boys on the threshold of manhood, were more liable to 
bring and spread contagion than were the men who an- 
swered the Army's call. So one of the first things 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 17 

that Captain Moffett did was to call into the service an 
architect who had had considerable experience in the 
designing of tubercular camps. 

What was accomplished in 1917 along the lines of 
making Great Lakes contagion-proof is best explained 
in conjunction with the architectural description of the 
regimental units. Two distinct architectural plans were 
adopted one for the detention camps, and the other for 
the main training camps. 

Each of the seven regimental units comprising Camps 
Perry and Dewey consisted of a galley and twelve semi- 
detached mess halls ; six H-shaped barracks units; a store- 
house with a barber shop, tailor shop and post office; an 
executive and instruction building; and a dispensary and 
sick bay with a detached observation ward. In Camp 
Dewey was erected a drill hall which, at that time, was 
the largest in the world. Even Captain Moffett didn't 
know how large it would be when he decided upon its 
construction. What he asked for was a drill hall so 
large that an entire regiment of 1726 men could drill 
in it without the slightest cramping of regimental evo- 
lutions. This drill hall was six hundred feet long by 
one hundred and two feet wide. 

In planning the mess building for each of these regi- 
mental units, Captain Moffett realized that to bring a 
large number of boys together in one huge hall, the at- 
mosphere of which was warm and heavy with the odors 
of food, would not be the best way in the world to com- 
bat disease. So, instead of one great eating hall in each 
regimental unit, the mess building for each of these 
regimental units comprised a large, perfectly-equipped 
galley, around which were grouped twelve mess halls, 
each of which accommodated a company of 144 men. 



1 8 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

These company mess halls were provided with outside 
doors, so that the men could enter them directly from 
the open air, and, on leaving, go directly out into the 
open air again. 

The result was that at no time while in the mess build- 
ings did the men of one company come in contact with 
the men of any other company. 

In the H-shaped barracks units a still further division 
was made in an endeavor to prevent contagion. Each 
one of these barracks units contained four hammock- 
hung dormitories, and each dormitory, accommodating 
seventy-two men, had its own shower baths, wash basins 
and other toilet facilities, making it a self-contained 
unit having no inner connection with any other unit. 

The value of this arrangement in preventing the 
spread of contagion almost speaks for itself. If a man 
came down with measles, scarlet fever, or any one of 
the other -contagious diseases, the only men he came in 
direct contact with were the seventy-one others occupy- 
ing that particular dormitory with him. And they 
could be immediately isolated from the rest of the camp 
without being moved from the dormitory in question, 
and be kept so isolated until such time as the medical 
department considered their release advisable. 

In the two incoming detention camps Camps Far- 
ragut and Decatur the subdivisioning was necessarily 
carried much further than in the main training camps. 
In these camps not more than twenty-four recruits were 
ever, under any circumstance, found in close contact 
indoors. Camps Farragut and Decatur each comprised 
one regimental unit accommodating 1726 men. The 
barracks units, instead of being H-shaped and only six 
to a regimental unit as in the main training camps 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 19 

were constructed singly, and there were thirty-six in 
each regimental unit. These single barracks were sub- 
divided into two non-communicable sections each com- 
prising a dormitory, a service room, and the required 
shower baths, wash basins, etc. Twenty-four men oc- 
cupied each section. 

There were no mess halls, either large or small in 
Incoming Detention simply a galley for each regi- 
mental unit. The food, when cooked and ready to serve, 
was placed in metal receptacles one for each kind of 
food and these- metal receptacles were nested in 
vacuum cans, which were then transported by motor 
trucks to the different dormitories. When finally served 
to the twenty-four men in the service room of each 
dormitory, the food was practically as warm as when 
it left the galley. The dishes and other culinary utensils 
used in each dormitory never left that particular dormi- 
tory but were washed and sterilized in a scullery located 
in a corner of the service room. The vacuum cans and 
the metal receptacles that fitted into them were thor- 
oughly sterilized in the main scullery before again reach- 
ing the galley. 

All of which, as already mentioned, had one big vital 
purpose, the prevention of contagion. So well was the 
problem handled that when a recruit in Incoming De- 
tention came down with any one of the diseases to which 
boys are so susceptible, not more than the twenty-three 
recruits sharing the dormitory with him had to be tem- 
porarily isolated as "contacts." 

About the time that the regimental units in Camps 
Perry and Dewey were completed the forces of the 
Public Works Department, all of whom were enlisted 
men, began the erection of a regimental unit in Camp 



20 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Paul Jones. This was the first big construction job for 
which sailors themselves provided the labor. 

On December 26, 1917, Great Lakes had a population 
consisting of 24,744 men, several hundred of whom re- 
ceived subsistence and lived off the Station. Several 
hundred more were quartered in the Main Drill Hall. 

At the close of 1917, Great Lakes consisted of twelve 
regimental units, the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, 
Sixth and Seventh, forming Camps Perry and Dewey: 
the Eighth and Ninth being the Incoming Detention 
camps Farragut and Decatur ; the Tenth, an Outgoing 
Detention Camp; the Eleventh, the Main Station; and 
the Twelfth the regimental unit in Camp Paul Jones 
constructed by the Public Works Department for the 
housing of its own forces. 

The winter of 1917-18 was one of the bitterest in the 
history of the Northern States. Cold weather closed 
down upon Great Lakes early in November, and blizzard 
followed blizzard. For weeks at a time the tempera- 
ture seldom rose above zero. 

Building operations were practically at a standstill, 
and the number of recruits received during the first 
couple of months of 1918 was comparatively light. In 
preparation for the great expansion which was to take 
place in 1918, certain important steps in reorganization 
took place. 

During January and February the population of 
Great Lakes was about 21,000 men. The outgoing 
drafts averaged not more than three hundred men per 
week. In February, 1074 recruits reported at Great 
Lakes ; in March 2358. 

With the approach of spring, building operations were 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 21 

commenced on a huge scale, for an expansion twice as 
great as that which occurred during 1917 an expan- 
sion calculated to give Great Lakes a winter capacity of 
40,000 men, housed in steam-heated barracks, provid- 
ing fifty square feet of floor space per man, or a capa-city 
of 80,000 men, if but twenty-five square feet of floor 
space was allowed per man, which was the case in the 
camps constructed in 1917. 

The Public Works Department, in cooperation with 
the Bureau of Yards and Docks, had drawn up plans for 
four new regimental units to be used for the training of 
apprentice seamen, and to be known as Camp Lawrence ; 
for three new Outgoing Detention umts, designated as 
Camp Luce ; for a great aviation school unit ; for a new 
Incoming Detention unit to be known as Camp Barry, 
and for a unit to be used as a school for the training of 
ensigns. 

The Aviation Unit was the first of the big construc- 
tion projects of 1918 to be started. Before work could 
be commenced on the actual construction of Camp Luce, 
fifteen or twenty buildings, the greater number of which 
were residences, had to be removed from the newly pur- 
chased tract of land. The work of moving these houses 
and remodeling them for use as officers' quarters was 
undertaken by the enlisted men of the Public Works De- 
partment. 

During the month of April approximately 6000 re- 
cruits were received at Great Lakes. In May the num- 
ber more than doubled, 15,553 being received. The 
number of recruits arriving during the month of June 
totaled 16,345. 

During May and June the thousands of tents, which 



22 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

had been stored away for the winter, were again put 
to use to provide accommodations for the unprecedented 
rush of recruits. 

In the meantime, with the construction of the Aviation 
Unit and Camp Luce progressing rapidly by contract 
labor, the enlisted forces of the Public Works Depart- 
ment sailor carpenters, painters, electricians, plumbers 
and fitters, and the like were themselves doing a tre- 
mendous amount of construction work. At this time 
they had under construction two regimental units in 
Camp Paul Jones and were building a sufficient number 
of new barracks in Camp Decatur to double its capacity 
as an Incoming Detention unit. They also constructed 
Constitution Field, which was developed by them into 
one of the largest and finest athletic fields in the country ; 
erected special office buildings, scores of mess halls, 
storehouses, latrines, etc., built bridges and roads, made 
alterations and repairs all over the Station, and cleaned 
up the new camps as rapidly as they were finished by 
contract labor. 

One of the most notable bits of construction work ac- 
complished by the "sailor forces" of the Public Works 
Department during the summer of 1918 was the erec- 
tion, in the course of one week, of thirty-five temporary 
frame barracks in Camp Barry, thus providing an ad- 
ditional Incoming Detention Unit to relieve the conges- 
tion in Camps Farragut and Decatur. 

That the above mentioned building feat was the result 
of an urgent necessity may be gained from the fact that 
during the month of July the number of recruits re- 
ceived in Incoming Detention was 22,081. 

The three "big months" at Great Lakes were May, 
June and July during which 53,979 recruits were re- 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 23, 

ceived. Imagine, if you can, the tremendous amount of 
effort and unremitting labor required to handle such a 
great number of men. During July an average of seven 
hundred and fifty men per day was received in Incoming 
Detention, the busiest day being July 27, when a total of 
1743 men reported. As rapidly as the recruits ap- 
peared, they were formed into companies of one hun- 
dred and forty-four men each and rushed through the 
formalities. Companies were outfitted both day and 
night. Their clothing, hammocks, mattresses, etc., were 
stenciled in the barracks they occupied, or, if they were 
quartered in tents, at assigned stenciling rooms. The 
inoculations were arranged for at the sick bays in each 
regiment. 

It is a singular fact that but one question was asked 
and only one answer required in outfitting a recruit, and 
that had to do with the size of his shoes. The outfitting 
of recruits in Incoming Detention was so well systema- 
tized that it became possible completely to outfit an entire 
company of one hundred and forty-four men in an hour. 
On July 29, the clothing room broke all records by com- 
pletely outfitting 2315 recruits. By August the big rush 
of recruits was over, only 8255 being received during 
the entire month. During September only 5944 re- 
cruits were received. 

Great Lakes' population reached its highest point on 
August 27, when there were 47,721 men on the Station. 
The average complement for September was but slightly 
below this figure, despite the fact that during July, 
August and September 24,500 men were transferred to 
sea. 

In the meantime the construction of the new regi- 
mental units had progressed rapidly. The huge Avia- 



24 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

tion Unit the largest single regimental unit on the Sta- 
tion was occupied by the Aviation Regiment before the 
middle of July. This regimental unit contained eleven 
double-decked (two story) H-shaped barracks, and five 
double-decked I-shaped barracks; a machine shop five 
hundred feet long by 100 feet wide; an Instruction 
Building of the same size; a three hundred-foot building 
containing a forge, welding and carpenter shop; three 
power houses; two 24-block test sheds; an armory; an 
aviation stores building; a regimental headquarters 
building; the largest Y. M. C. A. building on the Station; 
a hangar; a canteen and small stores building; a dispen- 
sary; a Lutheran Brotherhood building; a garage; and 
a machine-gun rifle range. 

During the period in which the Aviation Regiment 
was moving into its new quarters and becoming settled, 
a complete regimental unit for an aviation camp to be 
located in France was assembled and transferred in 
three sections, totaling 1800 men. This aviation regi- 
ment consisted of aviation quartermasters and machin- 
ists' mates, regular machinists' mates, gunners' mates, 
yeomen, storekeepers, bookkeepers, riggers, draftsmen, 
bricklayers, stone masons, concrete mixers, laborers, 
firemen, truck drivers, coppersmiths, plumbers, and fit- 
ters, boilermakers, carpenters, sailmakers, blacksmiths, 
surveyors, cabinet makers, two companies of seamen, 
and a regimental band consisting of twenty-eight pieces. 
Of such trades is the Navy made up. 

The first of the regimental units to be completed in 
Camp Luce was occupied the latter part of July, and 
during the following month the two other units compris- 
ing this camp were completed. As these three regi- 
mental units were designed for outgoing detention pur- 




Thousands of Sailors form a living " Vive la France " 

Captain W. A. Moffett giving a Message to his Orderly 

The Main Entrance to Great Lakes 




Instructors in the Main Rigging Loft 

Captain Moffett and his Staff lead Liberty Loan Parade in Chicago 
A Destroyer of the Land Fleet 



GREAT LAKES' EXPANSION 25 

poses, the barracks were constructed separately, and 
each of these barracks, which were double-decked, was 
divided into four non-communicable sections, the accom- 
modations being twenty-five men to a section. These 
sections had their own sculleries and mess rooms. The 
food was prepared in a central galley and delivered to 
the barracks in vacuum containers. 

Each of these Outgoing Detention Units contained 
thirty-four double-decked barracks ; a galley, storeroom, 
armory and power house; a dispensary and a sick bay; 
a Y. M. C. A. building; a Knights of Columbus Building, 
and a ship's store. 

These three regimental units provided Great Lakes 
with an Outgoing Detention Camp which could prepare 
10,000 men for transfer to sea every three weeks. 

Camp Lawrence, comprising four regimental units 
for training apprentice seamen, was not started until 
August, and, therefore, was just nearing completion 
when the armistice was signed. The first companies of 
apprentice seamen were received in Camp Lawrence a 
few days before the war came to an end. Camp Law- 
rence was equipped to quarter and train approximately 
10,500 men. 

The actual ending of hostilities, with Germany hope- 
lessly beaten, was the only thing that stopped Great 
Lakes' expansion. At that, it took several weeks to 
slow down after the signing of the armistice, so great 
was the impetus. Had the war continued into 1919, 
Great Lakes would have become a training camp of 
100,000 men. 

But the physical development and expansion of Great 
Lakes is only the shell of the real achievement. The 
96,779 men who were trained and sent to sea was the 



26 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

great contribution. The splendid work accomplished at 
Great Lakes was universally recognized. 

The type of bluejacket it produced set a new standard 
for efficiency. The boys of the great Middle West were 
more than welcome aboard the fighting ships, for they 
were soon found to be the best trained of any sent to the 
Fleet. 



CHAPTER II 
GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 

THE administration of a training camp such as 
Great Lakes became, with its constantly chang- 
ing population of close to 50,000 men, all of 
whom had to be clothed, fed, housed, trained and taught 
a variety of special subjects, was a task so complicated 
that it might easily have -staggered any ordinary ad- 
ministrative body. 

Not even in an army cantonment was the mutiplicity 
of detail as great as at a naval training station such as 
Great Lakes grew to be. In the army cantonments 
nearly all the men of a division commenced training at 
practically the same time, as university students com- 
mence study at the beginning of a school year. And, to 
all practical purposes, they progressed in the training 
as a body, finished training as a body, and the greater 
number of them passed on, the camp being refilled by a 
new quota of men. 

At Great Lakes, on the other hand, the population was 
one that can be designated as transient. Drafts of men 
left Great Lakes for the fighting ships every day and 
new men took their places. Great Lakes at all times 
represented men in all the stages of training, from 
the rawest recruits to men ready to go aboard 
ship to perform the special as well as general 
duties for which they were prepared. Every day men 
found to be particularly fitted for advanced training 

27 



28 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

were transferred from this or that training regiment 
to one of the many schools, all of which added detail to 
the work required of the administrative departments. 
Never for a moment during the war period did Great 
Lakes remain stationary. And it is with the adminis- 
trative body which kept Great Lakes running at top 
speed during the war period that this chapter deals. 

At the head of the administrative body was Captain 
W. A. Moffett, to whose organizing ability and energy 
the growth of Great Lakes was mainly due. As Com- 
mandant, Captain Moffett formulated the administra- 
tive policies of the Station, decided what was or was not 
to be done, and wielded absolute command subject, of 
course, to the supervision of the Bureau of Navigation 
at Washington. 

Assisting Captain Moffett as personal aides during 
1917 were Lieutenant C. S. Roberts, U. S. N., and two 
commissioned officers of the Naval Reserve Force the 
latter being men selected by Captain Moffett from busi- 
ness life as particularly fitted for the work he needed 
them to do. The first of these aides was Charles S. 
Dewey, who was enrolled as a junior grade lieutenant in 
April, 1917, and was advanced to a full lieutenancy 
early in 1918, when he became Senior Aide to the Com- 
mandant. In July, 1917, Kenneth S. Goodman was en- 
rolled in the Naval Reserve Force as a junior grade lieu- 
tenant and became the third of Captain Moffett's aides, 
also being advanced to a full lieutenancy in 1918. At 
one time or another during 1918 the following officers 
of the Naval Reserve Force also acted as Aides to the 
Commandant: Lieutenant J. H. McGillan, Lieutenant 
(j. g.) J. P. Burlingham, Ensign W. E. Clow, Jr., En- 
sign J. J. Boyle, Ensign Joseph Husband, Ensign Morris 



GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 29 

Phinny, Ensign L. P. Scott, and Ensign E. A. Hayes. 
These aides all served, not to impose their own judg- 
ments, but to express or convey the will of Captain Mof- 
f ett on many of the matters that came up daily for ad- 
justment. They prepared and sent out communications, 
signed orders, etc., always affixing "By Direction. }> 
Much of the routine work required of the Commandant 
by Navy regulations was thus taken off his hands. 

THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE 

Closely related to the Office of the Commandant is 
that of the Executive Officer. This officer sees that the 
policies promulgated by the Commandant are properly 
carried out. In other words, if Great Lakes were a 
great business corporation instead of a naval training 
station, the Commandant would hold the office of presi- 
dent, and the Executive Officer that of general manager. 

Lieutenant L. N. McNair was Executive Officer at 
Great Lakes when war was declared. At that time, the 
Executive Officer handled all the records and orders re- 
garding enlisted personnel and had general supervision 
of the drilling and instruction of recruits, as well as the 
general direction and operation, under Captain Moffett, 
of the entire station. 

A few weeks after the declaration of war, however, 
the lack of officers resulted in Lieutenant McNair being 
given command of Camp Paul Jones, leaving the paper 
work and records of the Executive Office in charge of 
Lieutenant (j. g.) C. K. Muir, a retired officer who had 
been ordered to the Station the latter part of April. 
And for the time being the actual functions of Execu- 
tive Officer were assumed by Captain Moffett personally. 

In June, 1917, Commander W. N. McMunn, National 



30 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Naval Volunteers, was assigned to duty as Executive 
Officer. In July, Lieutenant Commander C. H. Fischer, 
U. S. N. (Retired) was ordered to Great Lakes and re- 
lieved Commander McMunn as Executive Officer, the 
latter having had this duty in addition to his duties as 
Assistant Commandant of the Ninth, Tenth and Elev- 
enth Naval Districts. Under Lieutenant Commander 
Fischer the Executive Office resumed its regular func- 
tions. 

Late in December, 1917, Lieutenant Commander 
Fischer was found not physically fit for further active 
service by a board of medical survey and was ordered 
home by the Navy Department. In the meantime Lieu- 
tenant Commander, A. C. Wilhelm, U. S. N. (Retired) 
had assumed the duties of Drill Officer, which relieved 
the Executive Officer of a large portion of his duties in 
regard to the quartering, training and instruction of re- 
cruits. 

At the beginning of 1918 Lieutenant C. S. Roberts 
was assigned to duty as Executive Officer, and a reor- 
ganization was effected which divided the previous du- 
ties of the Executive Office among three newly created 
departments the Drill Office, Provost Marshal's Of- 
fice, and the Detail Office. The Executive Officer, be- 
ing thus relieved from these routine duties, was able to 
give more time to the development of the Station as a 
whole and to the coordination of the different depart- 
ments. 

During 1917 the officers assisting the Executive Of- 
ficer were Lieutenant (j. g.) R. S. Robertson, Jr., and 
Lieutenant (j. g.) B. C. Muir. The officers who assisted 
the Executive Officer at different periods during 1918 
were Lieutenant Ralph M. Jaeger, Lieutenant S. R. 



GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 31 

Canine, Lieutenant (j. g.) A. T. Carton, and Ensign 
Benny Johnson. 

THE DETAIL OFFICE 

When the Detail Office was created, January i, 1918, 
the offices which came under the supervision of the De- 
tail Officer, Lieutenant Walter P. Jost, consisted of the 
Station Record Office, the Central Office and the Re- 
ceiving Ship Record Office. By March, 1918, however, 
the demands received from the various Receiving Ships 
along the eastern seaboard had become so great that it 
was necessary to create still another office, which was 
called the Draft Department. And about the same time 
the Detail Officer assumed supervision of what had been 
known as the Insurance Section. This was an office 
organized in December, 1917, in order to comply with 
the Bureau of Navigation's instructions to have every 
man take out insurance and make a voluntary allotment, 
if he had any dependents. The Insurance Section was 
later given the additional duty of taking-up-for-pay all 
the newly enlisted men arriving on the Station, and its 
name was changed to that of Take-Up Section. 

The routine business handled by the Detail Office was 
as follows: Custody of all service records of enlisted 
personnel on the Station; making all changes in rating 
of men under training and attached to the Receiving 
Ship ; preparing paper and forwarding same for all out- 
going drafts; assignment to duty of men on Receiving 
Ship ; the granting of liberty and leave of absence to the 
men attached to the Receiving Ship ; the granting of all 
special money requisitions of the enlisted personnel on 
the Station; the preparation of the muster rolls by or- 
ganization of all the enlisted personnel on the Station; 



32 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

the making of all entries in service records for the en- 
listed personnel; keeping record of location and duties 
of all the enlisted men attached to the Station ; prepara- 
tion of all orders to the paymaster regarding changes of 
pay and the granting of subsistence to men attached to 
the Station ; preparing orders for all men detached tem- 
porarily from the Station; taking final action on all re- 
quests for assignment to duty, transfer and special in- 
structions; preparation of all correspondence pertaining 
to health records, service records and pay accounts of 
the enlisted personnel for the Commandant's signature ; 
taking up for pay all newly enlisted men arriving on the 
Station; the routing and distribution of all correspon- 
dence on the Station. 

During the summer months of 1918 the population of 
Great Lakes steadily mounted toward the 50,000 mark, 
and with the increase in population the forces of the 
Detail Office had likewise to be increased. By the end 
of September the forces working under the supervision 
of the Detail Officer consisted of six commissioned of- 
ficers, eight chief petty officers, and three hundred en- 
listed men. Ensign H. E. LaMertha was Assistant De- 
tail Officer during May and June, 1918. Ensign Earl 
R. Britt relieved Ensign LaMertha. Other officers at- 
tached to the Detail Office during 1918 were Ensign 
John Lindsay, Ensign H. E. Neal, Ensign T. A. Prov- 
ence, Ensign John Shillito, Lieutenant H. C. Ridgley, 
Ensign J. Long, Ensign J. B. Morriss, Ensign S. V. 
Hayward, Ensign Leon Foley, and Ensign F. L. 
Schlagle. 

During June, July, August and September, 1918, the 
forces of the Detail Office often worked until the early 
hours of the morning to shove off drafts of men re- 



GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 33 

quested by the Bureau of Navigation on short notice. 
The splendid spirit in which these men performed their 
duties was all that kept the Detail Office from being 
swamped. 

Regular quotas of men demanded of Great Lakes by 
the Bureau of Navigation during the summer of 1918 
were as follows : 

125 Seamen to Norfolk, Va., every Tuesday. 

375 Firemen to Norfolk, Va., every Tuesday; 

500 Firemen to Norfolk, Va., every Thursday. 

72 Seamen to Receiving Ship, New York, three times a 
week. 

20 Seamen Guards to Curtis Aeroplane & Motor Corp., 
Buffalo, N. Y., once a month. 

75 Radio Electricians to Harvard University each 
week. 

10 men to Sub-Chaser class, Columbia University, 
every two weeks. 

80 Radio Electricians to Dunwoody Institute, Minne- 
apolis, once a week. 

25 Firemen to Fuel Oil School, Philadelphia, every 

month. 

12 Men to Sub-Listeners' School, Pelham Bay, N. Y., 
every third week. 

26 Machinists' Mates (aviation) to Naval Air Station, 

Pensacola, Florida, once a week. 
12 Men to sub-Listeners' School, Pelham Bay, N. Y., 

every two weeks. 

28 Signalmen to Hampton Roads, Va., every week. 
50 Quartermasters to Naval Base, Norfolk, Va., every 

three weeks. 
100 Seamen Gunners to Newport, R. L, once a month. 

In addition to the above drafts, the Bureau of Naviga- 
tion was constantly demanding, during 1918, special 
quotas of men of every conceivable branch of the Navy, 



34 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

and these demands, one and all, were met. The Navy 
had to have this, the Navy had to have that; and be- 
cause Great Lakes was the Station that could best pro- 
vide the this and the that in man-power, Great Lakes 
was called upon. 

The great naval guns that were used in France in the 
final stage of the war were manned by crews trained at 
Great Lakes. 

THE DRILL OFFICE 

The establishment of the Drill Office as an independent 
department occurred January I, 1918, with Lieutenant 
Commander A. C. Wilhelm, U. S. N. (Retired) as its 
head. Lieutenant-Commander Wilhelm, as Tactical 
Brigade Commander, had military jurisdiction over the 
Aviation School, the Hospital Corps Training School, 
the Radio School, and the forces of the Public Works 
'Department, and absolute jurisdiction over all the other 
regiments and schools. 

The duties of the Drill Office included: the instruc- 
tion, drill and discipline of all men under training; the 
routine and muster of all organizations of men under 
training; the cleanliness of buildings and grounds oc- 
cupied by men under training; the bag inspection of men 
under training; the granting of liberty and leave to the 
men under training; the preparing of men for drafts; 
the assignment of recruits received from Incoming De- 
tention to training regiments and schools; the assign- 
ment of men received from Hospital to companies; the 
transfer of men between regiments and to schools; the 
selection of men for special drafts; the organization of 
bands ; the supervision of special instruction ; the super- 
vision of records of the instruction received by each com- 



GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 35 

pany ; the supplying of men for guards, working parties, 
and special details; the handling of funeral arrange- 
ments, firing parties, etc. ; the arrangement of train 
schedules for liberty parties; the handling of furlough 
fare certificates; the quartering of all men on the Sta- 
tion: the handling of honors rendered visiting officers; 
and the arrangements for the regular weekly and spe- 
cial reviews. 

Once each week regimental commanders gathered in 
the Drill Office to confer with Lieutenant-Commander 
Wilhelm and solve the many problems with which they 
were confronted. 

Lieutenant H. A. Spanagal was Assistant Drill Of- 
ficer early in 1918. He was succeeded by Lieutenant 
(j. g.) A. Somers. 

THE PROVOST MARSHAL'S OFFICE 

The Provost Marshal's Office was something new in 
the Navy, but the work it accomplished proved it to be 
an absolute necessity on a Station such as Great Lakes 
became, where thousands of recruits, the majority of 
them absolute strangers to military discipline, were 
thrown together. 

The duties of the Provost Marshal were numerous. 
He had charge of the Seaman Guard, all the gates, the 
brigs, and the "Ship Jumpers' Camp." He had charge 
of the handling of all prisoners, including deserters and 
General Courts-Martial prisoners and their transfer to 
eastern prisons and disciplinary barracks. He made ar- 
rangements for Mast, for the bringing of offenders 
thereto, and arranged the Mast report and the record 
of punishments awarded. He declared deserters, and 
acted in conjunction with the different agencies instru- 



36 

mental in the capture of such deserters. And he had 
jurisdiction over the Station's fire department, the men 
detailed for Officer-of-the-Day duties, and the Post 
Quartermaster, the duties of the latter consisting prin- 
cipally of keeping the records of the 7000 tents, 24,000 
cots, and the thousands of ponchos with which the Sta- 
tion was equipped. 

The Seaman Guard consisted of about three hundred 
picked men from the apprentice seamen companies of 
the very best caliber obtainable. These men did guard 
duty on the Station, acted as guards on trains and elec- 
tric cars during rush hours, and handled traffic on the 
Station on visiting days or on other days when the 
crowds made it necessary. During the summer of 1918 
hundreds of thousands of people visited Great Lakes on 
Review days. The throngs of visitors and the thou- 
sands of automobiles were handled by the Seaman Guard 
without a single accident. There were twelve men and 
one petty officer detailed to each of Great Lakes' four 
gates. The duty of these gatekeepers was the handling 
of liberty parties, the overhauling of all packages 
brought on to or taken away from the Station, and the 
controlling of all vehicle traffic through the gates. 

The fire department at Great Lakes consisted of three 
motor-driven fire engines, one hook-and-ladder truck, 
and a number of chemical wagons and hose reels. Each 
regimental unit had its own chemical wagons and hose 
reels. The fire engines and hook-and-ladder truck were 
for general use and were manned by experienced fire- 
fighters men who, before their enlistment in the Navy, 
had been members of metropolitan fire departments. 

Four Chief Petty Officers were detailed for Officer- 
of-the-Day duties, these men standing their watches in 



GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 37 

turn. In addition, they supervised the upkeep of the 
brick buildings constituting the Main Station. The Of- 
ficer-of-the-Day had to be ready at all times to receive 
telephone calls, messages and reports, transmit them to 
the proper authorities, and take such action as he deemed 
advisable on any situation with which he was con- 
fronted. He was also responsible for the proper entries 
being made in the deck-log. 

Summary Court-martial, or "Mast," was held twice 
a week, and the number of men on report averaged about 
forty for each Mast. This was a remarkably low per- 
centage of petty infringements of discipline, consider- 
ing the fact that during the latter months of the war the 
number of men at Great Lakes hovered around the 
45,000 mark. 

The Provost Marshal was Lieutenant Martin Frit- 
man, U. S. N. The Assistant Provost Marshal was 
Gunner Walter McGuire. 

OFFICE OF COURTS AND BOARDS 

Like many other departments at Great Lakes, the 
office of Courts and Boards resulted from the necessity 
of coordinating and systematizing the constantly in- 
creasing work involved in the Station's expansion to a 
war-time footing. 

This office was established immediately after the dec- 
laration of war, on the arrival at Great Lakes of Lieu- 
tenant-Commander J. M. Grimes, U. S. N. (Retired). 
Following the arrival of Lieutenant-Commander 
Grimes, and his appointment as President of a General 
Court-martial, Senior Member of Summary Courts- 
martial, Deck Court Officer, and President of the Ex- 
amining Board, court-martial work entered upon a new 



38 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

phase. The office was organized under precepts from 
the Secretary of the Navy. There was no sudden en- 
forcement of every harsh war-time regulation against 
recruits who committed petty offenses, but the fact that 
the United States was at war and that infractions of 
naval discipline would be punished according to war- 
time standards was gradually impressed upon the men 
at Great Lakes. 

Deck Courts, which had been the usual tribunal for 
the trial of minor offenses, were gradually replaced by 
Summary Courts, and criminal offenses and serious 
breaches of discipline were tried by General Courts- 
martial. 

The office of Recorder of the Summary Court was 
responsible for the carrying out of the many duties con- 
nected with the prosecution of cases against offenders. 
The Summary Court Recorder had to make all prelim- 
inary preparation for the trials, and during trials had 
charge of the active prosecution of the accused, al- 
though in case the accused was not represented by 
counsel, he was obliged to bring out such facts 
by witness as would constitute a defense. He was 
also responsible for the perfection of a proper rec- 
ord of proceedings, which was finally forwarded 
to the Judge Advocate General of the Navy De- 
partment. Lieutenant William C. Carpenter was 
the first recorder of the Summary Court following the 
declaration of war. In July, 1917, he was succeeded by 
Lieutenant (j. g.) Robert L. Grinnell, who, in January, 
1918, was also ordered to act as Judge Advocate of 
General Courts-martial. On May 13, 1918, Lieutenant 
Andrew P. Haynes, U. S. N., succeeded Lieutenant 
Grinnell as Recorder of the Summary Court. He ad- 



GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 39 

ministered the duties of this office until his death from 
influenza in September, 1918. Ensign John F. Hast- 
ings, of the Naval Reserve Force, then became Recorder 
of the Summary Court. 

The examining of enlisted men for advanced ratings 
was one of the main activities of the Office of Courts 
and Boards. By far the heaviest portion of this work 
consisted of the examination of candidates for advance- 
ment in the petty officer ratings, although during 1917 
this office supervised the examinations of some sixty- 
five candidates for the rank of ensign. Also, about 
sixty applications for examination in proficiency in the 
reading, writing and speaking of foreign languages were 
received by this office. A considerable number of these 
men passed the examinations and were sent away on 
foreign duty. During the early part of 1918 fifty men 
were examined to determine eligibility for entrance to 
the Naval Academy at Annapolis, and several groups 
were given the academic portion of the entrance exam- 
ination. 

During the first few months of the war the examina- 
tions for petty officer ratings averaged not more than 
fifty per month. Then the rate began to increase each 
month until, in September, 1918, the number of exam- 
inations given totaled 914. Of this number of men 
examined, 803 succeeded in passing. During the last 
seven months of the war 3802 men passed examinations 
at Great Lakes for petty officer ratings. 

The examining Board as constituted during the sum- 
mer of 1918 consisted of Lieutenant-Commander J. M. 
Grimes, Senior Member; Lieutenant R. L. Grinnell, 
Recorder; and the following members Lieutenant 
John Ronan, Lieutenant B. J. Hinman, Jr., Ensign R. 



40 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

V. Flory, Pay Clerk L. H. Ludwig, and Carpoiter J. E. 
Willis. 

THE ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT 

Upon the declaration of war, the Ordnance Depart- 
ment was equipped to provide ordnance material for ap- 
proximately one thousand men, but preparations had 
been made and a request sent to the Bureau of Ord- 
nance to increase equipment and ordnance material of 
various descriptions to provide for the training of about 
15,000 men. 

When war was declared all the 3-inch, 6-pounder and 
i -pounder guns available at Great Lakes were ordered 
shipped to the eastern coast to be used for the arming 
of merchant vessels. However, when the Naval Mili- 
tia Organizations of the Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Na- 
val Districts were mobilized, a considerable amount of 
ordnance material was left in the armories located in 
the various states. Every effort was made to obtain 
this ordnance material, and as a result Great Lakes was 
quickly provided with a couple of thousand additional 
rifles and drill guns, a number of pistols, and several 
3-inch field pieces. In the meantime the Bureau of Ord- 
nance sent to Great Lakes about 10,000 rifles of the 
older models, 1000 Springfield rifles, and 1000 drill rifles 
patterned after the Springfield model. This brought the 
grand total to about 16,000 rifles and 400 pistols, with 
all the necessary equipment. 

At the outbreak of the war Great Lakes had only one 
armory, and that was partly used by the Medical De- 
partment as a sick bay. Just before the war closed, the 
Station had sixteen regimental armories equipped in all 
respects for properly taking care of all ordnance ma- 



GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 41 

terial. These armories were also fitted up for the re- 
pairing of ordnance material. 

The facilities for carrying on small arm target prac- 
tice prior to the war consisted of three Ellis type, self- 
scoring targets located on the harbor breakwater. Im- 
mediately steps were taken to construct a 4Otarget 
small arms range. This range was put into commission 
the early part of July, 1917, and was constantly in use 
from that time on. In the autumn of 1917 the Navy 
Department acquired the Illinois State Target Range 
known as Camp Logan, about eighteen miles distant 
from Great Lakes, and during 1918 thousands of men 
from Great Lakes were given small arms practice there.. 
The Camp Logan range was equipped with two hundred 
targets. 

When the Gunners' Mates and Armed Guard schools 
were established in August, 1917, the facilities for 
carrying out the prescribed courses of training were 
hardly adequate. Immediate steps were taken to obtain 
the required ordnance material, which included guns, 
mines, torpedoes and machine guns of various kinds. 
None of the warships making up the Great Lakes' Train- 
ing Squadron mounted guns of the type used to arm the 
merchant marine. Therefore a battery of 3-inch, 50- 
caliber guns was mounted in a gun shed on the lake 
shore, and submarine targets were towed at varying dis- 
tances out into the lake for the men to shoot at. The 
students of the Armed Guard School practiced firing 
with these guns both day and night with excellent re- 
sults. The gun shed was provided with two great 
searchlights for night work. 

During the winter of 1917-18, approximately 1000 
men attached to the Public Works Department were put 



42 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

through an intensive course of instruction in Ordnance 
and Gunnery in order to fit them for duty with the large 
battery of 1 4-inch naval guns that was later used so ef- 
fectively on the western front in France. 

Among the thousands of men who were trained at 
Great Lakes it was only natural that a considerable num- 
ber of inventors should have declared themselves. One 
of the duties of the Ordnance Department was to inves- 
tigate and report on all inventions submitted to the Com- 
mandant. All of the following inventions were investi- 
gated, given careful consideration, and forwarded to 
the Navy Consulting Board for further investigation 
and consideration : A submarine lamp for diving pur- 
poses; a new type of diving apparatus; a method of using 
poison gas in sea warfare; a double-pointed projectile; 
an attachment that would allow a diver to be taken 
aboard while a submarine was under water ; a new type 
of range-finder attachment for small arms and for 
larger caliber guns and telescopes; a new type of sub- 
marine life preserver; a new type of torpedo net to be 
carried by merchant ships ; a new type of automatic re- 
leasing hook for life boats ; a shield for preventing sub- 
marine attacks; a gasoline gun; a monocular range 
finder; a two-piece projectile; a salvaging apparatus for 
merchant vessels ; a diamond microscope ; a mine-laying 
device for battle tanks; a depth bomb and magnetically 
controlled torpedo; a steel aeroplane propeller; a relay 
projectile containing three projectiles in one and claimed 
to travel one hundred miles ; an automatic boat-releasing 
hook; a non-ricochetting shell; a device for sealing 
hatches on merchant vessels after being torpedoed; a 
smoke and steam screen for aircraft defense for large 



GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 43 

cities like London, Paris and New York; a submarine 
trailer; an anti-aircraft projectile with chain attached; 
and a small arms automatic distance indicator. 

THE BOATSWAINS' DEPARTMENT 

The rigging lofts, boat house, inner and outer har- 
bor basins, and all floating craft, such as steamers, mo- 
tor boats, cutters, sailing launches and whaleboats, came 
directly under the supervision of this department, of 
which Lieutenant W. C. Carpenter was the head. 

At the beginning of the war the Station had just one 
rigging loft, located in the top of the Main Instruction 
Building. The number of rigging lofts constantly in- 
creased, however, as each of the regimental units con- 
structed for general training purposes was provided 
with one for instruction purposes. 

Tackles and purchases of all descriptions, wire pen- 
nants, heavy straps for the handling of weights, and 
such rigging as was required on the Station were manu- 
factured in the rigging loft and handled by the rigging 
crew without difficulty. 

From September i, 1917, to October 31, 1918, the 
forces of the rigging loft manufactured 246,105 clews, 
193,309 hammock lashings, 242,361 foot lashings, and 
79,412 jackstays, thus providing the Station with an 
abundance of these necessary articles. 

During the winter months, the season of closed navi- 
gation on the Great Lakes, there was no opportunity for 
boat instruction in the water. During the greater part 
of 1917 and 1918, however, the different schools on the 
Station used the boats every day, except when a gale 
was blowing, for teaching the rudiments of small-boat 



44 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

handling. During the winter months sailing launches 
and cutters, properly rigged, were set up in the instruc- 
tion buildings for study. 

THE ATHLETIC OFFICE 

Prior to the declaration of war the Athletic Associa- 
tion at Great Lakes was a small organization. At that 
time the Navy Department allowed Great Lakes only 
$400 a year for athletics, and the Association's only 
other sources of income were the dues from officers and 
men, along with a little revenue from the operation of 
a billiard room and bowling alleys in the basement of the 
Instruction Building. 

Therefore one of the first problems that had to be 
solved by the Athletic Officer, Commander John B. 
Kaufman, Medical Corps, U. S. N. (at that time a Lieu- 
tenant-Commander) was the raising of funds to carry 
on the work on a vast scale. The nest-egg for this fund 
was obtained in a rather unusual way. The Chicago 
Telephone Company had been called upon to lay a spe- 
cial telephone cable to meet the needs of the rapidly 
growing Station. But practically all the workmen on 
this job were aliens and for this reason could not be 
permitted on the Station. The Athletic Officer learned 
of the difficulty and made a proposition to the telephone 
company to do the job with sailor labor, providing the 
said company would pay the Athletic Association the 
same amount it would have had to pay its workmen. 
The company agreed and the Athletic Officer called for 
volunteers. As a result the job was done in less than 
five days and the athletic fund received five hundred 
dollars. 

With the above mentioned five hundred dollars as a 



GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 45 

beginning the Athletic Officer built up a fund which 
made possible the buying of thousands of dollars' worth 
of athletic gear, the construction of indoor running 
tracks, regimental athletic fields and the like. Of the 
thousands of dollars spent by the Athletic Officer dur- 
ing the war period only ten thousand dollars was al- 
loted by the Navy Department. The great bulk of the 
money was obtained through such activities as the Main 
Laundry, the Ship's Stores, and the barber, tailor and 
shoe shops. 

And when the armistice was signed, the Athletic As- 
sociation had in the neighborhood of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars to its credit, including forty thousand dol- 
lars' worth of liberty bonds purchased by it to help Great 
Lakes go "over the top" in the Liberty Loan drives. 

In developing the Athletic Association into an organi- 
zation adequate to provide clean, healthful sports for 
thousands upon thousands of young sailors, the Athletic 
Officer gathered around him many of the best athletes in 
the Middle West. These men were placed in charge of 
departments, or used as instructors to stimulate interest 
in the different sports, which consisted, in the main, of 
baseball, football, basket ball, boxing, swimming, wrest- 
ling, and field and track events. 

Particular care was exercised in the selection of swim- 
ming instructors, as swimming was a part of the train- 
ing at Great Lakes, as well as a sport. 

Boxing and wrestling had always been fostered at 
Great Lakes. With the war-time growth of the Station, 
boxing and wrestling became one of the most wide- 
spread and popular branches of the sports. Profes- 
sional boxers and wrestlers were enrolled in the Naval 
Reserve Force and detailed to the different regiments as 



46 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

instructors, with the idea of giving all the men who so 
desired an opportunity to become proficient. Regular 
boxing and wrestling contests were held, both intra- and 
inter-regimental, but all such bouts were limited to men 
who were strictly amateurs. 

In order to stimulate competition various cups were 
offered, the most important of these being the General 
Athletic Efficiency Cup, awarded to the regiment which 
made the best showing each month; the inter-regimental 
baseball, football and basketball championship cups; 
and the inter-regimental boxing and wrestling champion- 
ship cups. 

In addition to the first and second teams representing 
Great Lakes in baseball, football and basketball, each 
regiment and school was represented by a team in these 
three sports, and games were played every day during 
the respective seasons. 

The record of Great Lakes' achievement in athletics 
during the war will be given in a special chapter. 

The activities of the Athletic Association during the 
war were many and various. In addition to the organi- 
zation of Station and regimental athletics, this depart- 
ment operated the shoe shops, barber shops and tailor 
shops; directed all the amusements, such as vaudeville 
shows and motion pictures; supervised general pub- 
licity and the publishing of the Station's magazine, and 
still found time to direct several minor activities. 

The barber shops were taken over from civilian con- 
trol in July, 1917, and a large number of barbers were 
enrolled in the Naval Reserve Force. During the sum- 
mer of 1918 there were twenty-five well-equipped barber 
shops at Great Lakes, and two hundred and fifty barbers. 

The shoe and tailoring shops were also taken over 



GREAT LAKES' ADMINISTRATION 47 

by the Athletic Department. Two large, thoroughly- 
equipped shoe shops were established, with a force of 
seventy-five cobblers capable of turning out, half soling 
and heeling, eight hundred and fifty pairs of shoes per 
day. The number of tailoring shops grew from one 
small room to twelve well-equipped shops, with a force 
of seventy men. The prices charged by the shoe and 
tailoring shops were less by half than those of civilian 
shops. 

Prior to the war the only entertainment afforded on 
the Station were occasional performances given by the- 
atrical clubs located in the immediate vicinity of Great 
Lakes. Step by step the entertainment problem was 
overcome. Moving picture outfits were obtained and 
reel plays and other views were shown practically every 
night at several different places. During the early sum- 
mer of 1918 a huge stage was erected in one of the drill 
halls in Camp Perry. On this stage, the best vaude- 
ville talent which visited Chicago performed for the 
sailors. Several three-act plays were also presented. 
A huge open-air amphitheatre was built in the ravine 
separating Camps Decatur and Farragut and vaudeville 
shows were given in it twice a week for the entertain- 
ment of the men in Incoming Detention. 

No admission was charged for any entertainment, 
theatrical or athletic, given on the Station. This ap- 
plied not only to the men in the service but to any of 
their friends who happened to be on the Station. 



CHAPTER III 

THE SUPPLY DISBURSING DEPARTMENTS 

PRIOR to the declaration of war the Supply De- 
partment at Great Lakes had only two officers 
Lieutenant H. B. Worden, who was the officer in 
charge, and a pay clerk. These officers had as their 
assistants three civil service clerks and four civilian 
laborers. The business of the department was carried 
on in a two-story brick building, a large part of which 
was taken up by office space. 

To keep pace with the ever increasing rush of recruits, 
the Supply Department had to be expanded rapidly. 
New systems of handling the business had to be de- 
veloped ; additional storehouse and office space had to be 
acquired; its complement of officers and men had to be 
enlarged. 

One of the greatest difficulties that had to be met and 
overcome had to do with the lack of trained help. At 
the outset of the war it was, of course, impossible to get 
men of naval training and naval experience to handle 
the supply work. In this department, as in others, the 
difficulty was overcome by going into the commercial 
world and enrolling men in the Naval Reserve force for 
such duty. Care was exercised in picking these men, 
and for the most part they were chosen from the large 
business houses and railroad offices in and near Chicago, 
and were men who had had considerable experience in 

48 



SUPPLY DISBURSING DEPARTMENTS 49 

lines that particularly fitted them for Supply Depart- 
ment work. 

The Supply Department, in particular, encountered 
difficulties during the early days of the war that were 
many and serious. With inadequate, untrained help, 
and practically no stowage space, this department had to 
supply the needs of a station that was expanding by 
leaps and bounds. Not only food, clothing, blankets 
and the like were demanded of the Supply Department 
for the thousands of recruits, but a thousand and one 
other things, ranging from electric locomotives to mon- 
key wrenches. 

Soon after war was declared the work of the Supply 
Department was reorganized into five separate and dis- 
tinct divisions, all under the direct supervision of the 
Supply Officer. 

The Purchasing Division of the Supply Department 
consisted of a commissioned officer, two pay clerks 
(Warrant Officers), four chief petty officers, and twenty- 
one enlisted men. 

Under the purchasing system which prevailed before 
the war bids for purchases were opened three times a 
week, and about twenty bids was a fair average for 
each opening. But during 1918 the Supply Officer had 
to consider not less than two hundred bids at each open- 
ing, and the increase in business required that bids be 
opened daily and even twice a day, and often on Sun- 
days and holidays. Before the war the Supply Depart- 
ment maintained a mailing list containing the names of 
about eight hundred bidders, which was adequate to 
meet all the needs. By the summer of 1918 this list 
contained the names of more than fifteen thousand re- 
liable bidders. 



50 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

The following data indicates the growth of the Pur- 
chasing Division's business. 

The number of public bills written from January i, 
1917, to March 31, 1917, the three months just pre- 
ceding the war were 468, and represented an expendi- 
ture of $114,690. 

The number of public bills written from July I, 1918, 
to Oct. i, 1918, a like period of three months were 
5470, and represented an expenditure of $4,378,432. 

During November, 1917, the following fresh pro- 
visions were contracted for: Beef, 300,000 Ibs. ; Pork, 
25,000 Ibs.; Potatoes, 400,000 Ibs.; Cabbages, 40,000 
Ibs.; Onions, 25,000 Ibs.; Fruits, 229,000 Ibs.; Turkey, 
15,000 Ibs.; Butter, 30,000 Ibs.; Eggs, 30,000 dozen. 

During November, 1918, the fresh provision contracts 
were for: Beef, 1,500,000 Ibs; Potatoes, 1,500,000 
Ibs.; Cabbage, 125,000 Ibs.; Onions, 100,000 Ibs.; Fruits, 
574,000 Ibs.; Turkey, 45,000 Ibs.; Butter, 120,000 Ibs.; 
Eggs, 75,000 dozen. 

THE NAVAL SUPPLY ACCOUNT DIVISION 

The work of this Division of the Supply Department 
was, prior to the declaration of war, handled by one 
civil service clerk and four civilian laborers. When the 
armistice was signed, the work of this division was be- 
ing performed by three commissioned officers and 265 
enlisted men. The stowage space required before the 
war was only 20,000 square feet, including space for 
provisions and clothing. When the armistice was 
signed 120,000 square feet of stowage space was being 
used for the proper stowing of Naval Supply Account 
material alone, and a great storehouse, 524 ft. long by 
124 ft. wide, was nearing completion. 



SUPPLY DISBURSING DEPARTMENTS 51 

It is interesting to make the following comparisons: 
The value of the Naval Supply Account stock carried 
prior to March i, 1917, was approximately $30,000. 
During 1918 it was necessary for this division to main- 
tain a stock valued at approximately $1,000,000. The 
value of the electrical stock alone was greater than that 
of the entire stock of supplies carried prior to the war. 
The stock of lumber carried during peace times was con- 
veniently stowed in two rooms having a combined floor 
space of 150 sq. ft. During the summer of 1918 the 
lumber yard of the Naval Supply Account Division cov- 
ered an area of 50,000 sq. ft., and contained more than 
4,000,000 ft. of lumber. The value of receipts and 
expenditures of all materials prior to the declaration of 
war was approximately $6000 per month. The value 
of the receipts during 1918 totaled approximately $600,- 
ooo per month. A requisition for 500 hammocks and 
500 mattresses was, prior to the war, considered a rather 
large order. At one time during the summer of 1918 
one requisition called for 100,000 of these articles. 

The Receiving Division of the Supply Department 
handled the unloading, tallying and distribution of all 
materials received by the Supply Department, and, in 
conjunction with the Public Works Department, in- 
spected these materials. 

The number of railroad cars received and unloaded 
by this division from April 6, 1917, to October i, 1918, 
totaled more than ten thousand. The average number 
of shipments received per day during this period was 
eighty-one by railroad and eight by motor trucks oper- 
ating between Great Lakes and Chicago. 

The first operation in the receiving of material was 
the unloading of the railroad cars, which was done by a 



52 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

force of about forty experienced tally men and a work- 
ing detail composed of three hundred men. Almost 
every conceivable kind of material was received, such as 
pipe of all kinds, brick, cement, machinery, lumber, cars 
of mixed merchandise, automobiles, locomotives in 
short, anything and everything that was needed prop- 
erly to operate a vast training station. 

The smaller materials had to be carried into the re- 
ceiving sheds after being tallied, and all containers 
opened and the contents counted. Then it had to be 
passed on to the inspection rooms, where inspectors of 
the Public Works Department carefully inspected and 
recounted the materials. Before this was done, how- 
ever, the Purchasing Division of the Supply Depart- 
ment had to furnish an inspection call, made from the 
Receiving Division report of delivery. On this inspec- 
tion call was noted any deviation in quality or quantity, 
and the material accepted or rejected accordingly. 

Prior to the war the work of the Receiving Division 
was accomplished by one civilian employee, aided by a 
few civilian laborers. In 1918 the forces of this divi- 
sion included two commissioned officers and seventy en- 
listed men, in addition to a working detail of three hun- 
dred men provided each day from the different training 
regiments. 

The Provisions Division of the Supply Department 
was organized to handle the provisions and clothing for 
the entire Station. At the beginning of 1918, however, 
the Station Disbursing Office took over the handling of 
clothing, thus leaving this division free to concentrate 
its energies. 

The supplies handled by this division were only such 
as are commonly known in the Navy as "dry" provi- 



SUPPLY DISBURSING DEPARTMENTS 53 

sions, such as sugar, beans, flour, canned goods of all 
kinds, coffee, hominy, jams, and the like everything, in 
fact, that a grocery store and meat market carries ex- 
cept fresh meats, eggs, butter, fruits and vegetables. 
The latter all perishable provisions were purchased 
in the open market by the Purchasing Division of the 
Supply Department, and upon being received were im- 
mediately turned over to the Commissary Department. 
The "dry" provisions, on the other hand, were supplies 
received from the Provisions and Clothing Depot in New 
York, or from producers and manufacturers under 
Navy orders and Navy contracts. 

An idea of the growth of the Provisions Division of 
the Supply Department may be gained from the fact 
that the amount of dry provisions received at Great 
Lakes during the first quarter of 1917 totaled 1,480,516 
Ibs., valued at $143,068, while for the same period in 
1918 the total of dry provisions received was 8,849,988 
Ibs., valued at $876,260. 

The District Supply Division of the Supply Depart- 
ment was organized to supply the needs of the Ninth, 
Tenth and Eleventh Naval Districts. Its initial activi- 
ties were those of purchasing or leasing fifty motor 
boats to be used for harbor and coast defense patrol 
duty on the Great Lakes, and the establishing of section 
supply bases at Sault Ste. Marie, Detroit, Duluth, and 
Chicago. 

In addition to the above mentioned scout patrol bases, 
the District Supply Division continuously supplied the 
seven warships the U. S. S. Y antic, U. S. S. Isla de 
Luzon, U. S. S. Gopher, U. S. S. Hawk, U. S. S. Wolver- 
ine, and U. S. S, Sandoval assigned to duty on the 
Great Lakes for use in training recruits. 



54 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Other district activities which made demands upon 
the District Supply Division for equipment and supplies 
included the Auxiliary Naval Reserve School located 
on the Municipal Pier in Chicago; the Dunwoody In- 
stitute at Minneapolis; the Naval Training Camp lo- 
cated at Detroit in connection with the production of 
"Eagle" submarine chasers; the Coast Inspector's Of- 
fice, and the District Administration offices at Great 
Lakes, included the District Communication Office and 
the outlying radio stations. 

The District Supply Division had a personnel consist- 
ing of one commissioned officer and twenty-one enlisted 
men. 

THE ACCOUNTING SECTION 

The Accounting Office was not under the jurisdiction 
of the Supply Officer, but so closely was it allied with 
the Supply Department, with which its work inter- 
mingled, that it can best be dealt with here. At all in- 
dustrial yards affiliated with the Navy, Accounting Of- 
fices have been established for several years, but Great 
Lakes was the first non-industrial Station to which it 
was thought necessary to assign an Accounting Officer. 
This, of course, was due to the remarkable size to which 
Great Lakes grew, and its supreme importance. 

The duties of the Accounting Officer consisted of 
maintaining accurate data on the costs of all projects; 
recording and reporting all maintenance charges, in- 
cluding civilian pay-rolls; keeping a record of all allot- 
ments of money for up-keep, improvements, new proj- 
ects, etc.; and preparation at any time to furnish the 
proper administrative officials with accurate data on 
these and allied subjects. He also was charged with 
maintaining a plant inventory and property account. 



SUPPLY DISBURSING DEPARTMENTS 55 

The Accounting Officer was Lieutenant Harry 
Hooton, Pay Corps, U. S. N. His working force con- 
sisted of Ensign R. S. Matison, Ensign R. L. Barger, 
and forty-seven enlisted men, many of them skilled ac- 
countants. 

From all the above facts, descriptive of the work of 
the Supply Department, it may be seen what a tremen- 
dous task it had to accomplish. As already mentioned, 
this department was operating with two officers, three 
clerks and four laborers just previous to the declaration 
of war. When the Armistice was signed, its forces con- 
sisted of ten commissioned officers, five pay clerks, forty- 
four chief petty officers, and 523 petty officers and un- 
rated men. 

During the latter part of 1918 the officers of the 
Supply Department included: Lieutenant-Commander 
Horace B. Worden, U. S. N., Supply Officer; Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) R. E. Mulrohney, Assistant Supply Officer; 
Ensign Donald C. Burleigh; Ensign Alden B. Doyle; 
Ensign Roth S. Keller; Ensign E. L. Montee; Ensign 
H. B. Weaver; Ensign C. P. Slane; Ensign B. C. Brad- 
ner; Pay Clerk G. C. Baugh; Pay Clerk O. H. Boyens; 
Pay Clerk F. E. Glassman; Pay Clerk G. M. H olden; 
Pay Clerk C. E. Linstrand. 

THE STATION DISBURSING OFFICE 

When war was declared, the working staff of what 
was then known as the "Pay Office" consisted of three 
assistant paymasters, two pay clerks, two chief yeomen 
and ten enlisted men, and the department consisted of 
the Station Disbursing Office, the District Disbursing 
Office, the Commissary Office, and the Commissary 
Stores. But on May i, 1917, the District Disbursing 



56 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Office was made an independent organization, and on 
May 5, 1917, the Commissary Office was created as an 
independent department for the administration of the 
general mess and commissary stores. 

When the Armistice was signed, the Station Disburs- 
ing Office alone had a working force consisting of two 
Lieutenant-Commanders, one Lieutenant, two lieuten- 
ants, junior grade, eighteen ensigns, seven pay clerks, 
sixteen chief yeomen, 534 yeomen and 55 storekeepers. 
At the head of the department was Lieutenant-Com- 
mander R. S. Robertson. His staff of commissioned 
officers consisted of: Lieutenant-Commander N. B. 
Farwell; Lieutenant H. Kuhrmeyer; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
G. E. Lord; Lieutenant (j. g.) R. E. Russey; Ensign 
R. L. Barger; Ensign M. S. Bethel; Ensign C. C. Chase; 
Ensign T. A. Callaghan; Ensign C. F. Cook; Ensign H. 
E. Culbertson; Ensign R. A. Eckstrand; Ensign M. R. 
Grady; Ensign E. V. Irwin; Ensign M. A. Johnson; En- 
sign D. A. McDougald; Ensign G. B. Pardee; Ensign 
C. S. Redhead ; Ensign L. A. Tibor ; Ensign C. C. Furr ; 
Ensign K. O. Hester ; Ensign W. A. Scott ; Ensign E. H. 
Hagel; Pay Clerk J. H. Becker; Pay Clerk P. L. 
Brothers; Pay Clerk J. J. Dillon; Pay Clerk M. E. Mc- 
Kay; Pay Clerk Charles Musil; Pay Clerk A. C. Schroe- 
der; Pay Clerk L. W. Sperling; Pay Clerk J. R. LaPado. 

At the beginning of the war, and, as a matter of fact, 
for many months, the Station Disbursing Office was 
continually in the process of being "almost swamped." 
It was no easy matter to handle the pay accounts, allot- 
ments and insurance of a constantly changing popula- 
tion of thousands upon thousands of men, and equipment 
was woefully lacking. And the pay accounts of the 
men was only part of this department's work it had 



SUPPLY DISBURSING DEPARTMENTS 57 

likewise to pay for all of the supplies, the materials used 
in the construction of the great wooden cantonments, 
and meet all public bills. 

To overcome the shortage in men requests were sent 
out daily to the different training regiments and to the 
Incoming Detention Camps for the kind of trained men 
who were needed, such as expert accountants, book- 
keepers and stenographers. Additional office space was 
gradually taken over until the department occupied the 
entire south wing, including the basement, of the Ad- 
ministration Building. At times the rush of work made 
it necessary to erect tents for office purposes on all the 
available ground space around the Administration Build- 
ing, and to fill the corridors of the Administration Build- 
ing with men working at desks composed of packing 
boxes and boards placed on radiators. 

Gradually, the organization of the Station Disburs- 
ing Office was built up and a system created that could 
take care of the enormous amount of work which the 
expansion of Great Lakes entailed. 

When the number of men training at Great Lakes 
passed the 25,000 mark, the chief drawback discovered 
in the payroll system used up to that time was the length 
of the period required to transfer the rolls at the begin- 
ning of each quarter. Because of the lack of trained 
payroll men, it took from ten days to two weeks to trans- 
fer the payroll. Therefore, motor-driven addresso- 
graph and graphotype machines were installed, and 
these were provided with special features to permit the 
use of the payroll forms. Stencils were made for each 
name on the rolls and these were filed numerically. As 
new names were added to the rolls, new stencils were 
made. As men were transferred, their stencils were re- 



58 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

moved from the files. At the end of a quarter it was 
necessary only to run the stencils in the live file through 
the addressograph, then to enter the dates, rates, amount 
of pay and balances, and the new rolls were ready for 
operation. Stamps were obtained for all ordinary pay 
rates and for the usual notations that had to be made 
on the rolls. By the use of this equipment, work was so 
simplified that it was found the payrolls could be trans- 
ferred and made ready for the business of the new quar- 
ter in a day and a night. 

In connection with the above named equipment, a 
visible index was installed, showing the names arranged 
alphabetically. In each case the full name of the man, 
his pay number and rating, and date of enlistment was 
shown in this index. 

It should be of interest to the men who passed through 
Great Lakes to know how their transfer to sea was 
handled. Upon receipt of an order from the Detail 
Office to transfer a draft of, say, five hundred men, the 
yeoman in charge of the visible index inserted the pay 
numbers of the men to be transferred. This list was 
then turned over to the addressograph section, where the 
stencils for the list were pulled, filed numerically, and 
run off. Three copies of the list were then furnished 
to the chiefs of the payroll section. The names on such 
a list were spaced about three inches apart in the pay- 
roll section, and under each name was entered the date 
to which the payment was made, the rate of pay, the bal- 
ance due or balance over-paid, all allotment information, 
and any other notations necessary to go on the transfer. 
While this work was being done, the addressograph sec- 
tion ran off in triplicate the usual transfer forms, and 
these forms were turned over to the transfer section for 



SUPPLY DISBURSING DEPARTMENTS 59 

typing. When the forces of the payroll section had 
completed the work of closing the accounts of the men 
on the draft, the strips on which they entered the neces- 
sary information were also turned over to the transfer 
section and the transfers were then completed. 

Compulsory allotments for enlisted men of the Navy 
and Government insurance also provided a tremendous 
amount of work for the Station Disbursing Office. The 
amount of insurance taken out by the men who passed 
through Great Lakes totaled more than $100,000,000. 

The value of the clothing issued to the men received 
at Great Lakes from April 6, 1917, to September 3Oth, 
1918, was $8,832,047. 

The amount of money paid to men carried on the pay- 
rolls of the Station Disbursing Office from April I, 
1917, to December i, 1918, amounted to $6,259,075. 

All money expended for the construction of new 
camps, the rental of leased land, the provisioning of the 
Station, the stocking of the Ships' Stores, and for trans- 
portation, was handled by the Station Disbursing Of- 
fice. The total amount thus spent during the period 
from April I, 1917, to November i, 1918, was $19,- 
851,647. The largest item was for the construction of 
the new camps, the amount approximating $10,078,016. 
The other big item, which came to approximately $5,- 
178,941, was for the provisioning of the Station and the 
stocking of the Ships' Stores. 

THE RECEIVING SHIP DISBURSING OFFICE 

On the first of January, 1918, the officers and enlisted 
men more or less permanently attached to Great Lakes 
as its operating personnel, and known as the Ships' com- 
pany, were transferred into the Receiving Ship. This 



6o THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

resulted in the establishment of the Receiving Ship Dis- 
bursing Office, with Lieutenant C. R. Stevenson, Pay 
Corps, U. S. N., as its head. 

The pay accounts transferred to this office from the 
Station Disbursing Office at that time were 5260 in 
number. Of this number, 5000 were enlisted men, two 
hundred were officers, and sixty were nurses. 

Just previous to the signing of the armistice, the 
number of pay accounts carried by the Receiving Ship 
Disbursing Office was close to 9000, of which 8000 were 
enlisted men, 750 were officers, and 200 were nurses at- 
tached to the Hospital. 

The officers attached to the Receiving Ship Disburs- 
ing Office included Lieutenant C. W. Stevenson ; Ensign 
L. W. Bishop; Ensign S. L. Jones; Pay Clerk R. W. 
Shea; Pay Clerk M. H. Thies. 



THE COMMISSARY DEPARTMENT 

The duties of the Commissary Department were in- 
corporated with those of the Station Disbursing Office 
until May I, 1917. On that date Lieutenant F. H. At- 
kinson, of the Pay Corps Division, U. S. N., was as- 
signed to duty as Commissary Officer and took charge 
of the General Mess and the Commissary Store, the lat- 
ter being a regular grocery and meat market at which of- 
ficers and men who had families living in the vicinity of 
Great Lakes could purchase supplies at cost. 

Previous to the declaration of war the Commissary 
forces at Great Lakes consisted of one Chief Commis- 
sary Steward, ten cooks, and five bakers. Soon after 
April 6, 1917, the number of recruits enrolled as Lands- 
men for Ships' Cooks had passed the three hundred 



SUPPLY DISBURSING DEPARTMENTS 61 

mark. These men were instructed as rapidly as pos- 
sible for duty as cooks and bakers. 

During the summer of 1918 there were approximately 
one thousand men assigned to duty in the Commissary 
Department. Practically all of these men had had to 
be trained in the Navy method of preparing foods. 

The policy of transferring the cooks, bakers and Com- 
missary Steward, who were best fitted for duty aboard 
ship to such duty, made it necessary to have a large num- 
ber of Landsmen for Ships' Cooks in the process of be- 
ing trained at all times. From May i, 1918, to Novem- 
ber i, 1918, more than six hundred Commissary Stew- 
ards, Cooks and Bakers were transferred to sea. 

During 1918 numerous changes were made in the sys- 
tem of operating the many huge galleys and mess halls. 
Lieutenant Atkinson asked for the assignment of a num- 
ber of ensigns of the Pay Corps to act as his assistants. 
The ten officers who reported were given a thorough 
course of instruction in the Navy methods of cooking 
and baking and were then sent to Chicago to learn how 
to inspect meats and produce, and to become thoroughly 
acquainted with market conditions. On finishing the 
instruction courses these officers were assigned to the 
different camps one to each camp with the purpose 
in mind of eliminating waste and making improvements 
in the methods of preparing and serving food to the men. 

The quality inspection of all fresh provisions received 
at Great Lakes during the first few months of the war 
was made by medical officers. Later, however, this work 
was done by two Chief Commissary Stewards, one stew- 
ard being an expert on the inspection of meats, butter, 
cheese and eggs, and the other an expert on fruits and 
vegetables. 



62 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

The food consumed at Great Lakes during the six- 
months period between April i, 1918, and October i, 
1918, amounted to 12,237 tons, valued at approximately 
$2,600,000. Of this food, seventy-three percent was 
fresh fruits, vegetables and meats. Of the fresh meats, 
eighty-one percent was beef, and of the fresh vegetables, 
ninety-two percent was Irish potatoes. An average of 
33,663 men per day were fed at Great Lakes for the six- 
months period in question, at an average cost per meal 
of fourteen cents. 

The Pay Corps officers attached to the Commissary 
Department were: Lieutenant-Commander F. H. At- 
kinson, Ensign J. R. Parkhurst, Ensign P. C. Berkley, 
Ensign L. B. Berman, Ensign R. C. Capelli, Ensign E. 
B. Cook, Ensign J. M. Jones, Ensign Aner Erickson, 
Ensign Paul N. Chalfant, Ensign W. E. Kraft, Ensign 
H. S. Scheimman, Ensign J. M. Speissegger, Ensign B. 
H. Smith. 

THE SHIPS' STORES DEPARTMENT 

This department was something new in the Navy, for 
never before was there a "Ships' Store" on shore. In 
the fall of 1917, Lieutenant James D. Boyle, Pay Corps, 
U. S. N., was ordered to Great Lakes to take charge of 
this new department and a Ships' Store was established 
in each of the regimental units. 

By the late summer of 1918, the Ships' Stores De- 
partment consisted of a main office, three large store- 
rooms, and twenty Ships' Stores, and its ope-rating force 
had grown from thirty to one hundred and seventy men. 

The stock carried by these stores included candies, 
cakes, cigars, cigarettes and tobacco, pipes, fountain 
pens, soap, shaving cream, dental cream, razors, sta- 




The Supply Storage in the Main Drill Hall 

The Supply Officer, Lieutenant-Commander H. B. Worden, and his Staff 
A Company Mess Hall 




The Firemen's Classroom 

A Regimental Street of Barracks 

The Machinists' Mates Class 



SUPPLY DISBURSING DEPARTMENTS 63 

tionery, tooth brushes, shoe brushes and notions of all 
sorts required by a great camp of men. 

The amounts of such goods required by the Ships' 
Stores Department from the time of its establishment 
up to November i, 1918, shows how big the demand 
was. The candies carried approximated 1,000,000 Ibs., 
with a value of about $300,000; cigars, 1,322,000, valued 
at $61,000; cigarettes, 52,970,000, in packages ranging 
from ten to one hundred in each, valued at $335,173; 
cakes, 615,000 Ibs., valued at $118,800; soap, 795,000 
bars; shaving cream 100,000 packages, valued at 
$20,000. 

Buying in such large quantities, it was possible to get 
reductions in prices. The benefit of such close buying 
accrued directly to the men, as the goods were sold over 
the counter at cost, plus ten percent. 

The ten percent profit was also used for the benefit of 
the men. In accordance with instructions covering all 
Ships' Stores, the ten percent profit goes into a fund 
known as the Crews' Entertainment Allotment, and can 
be expended only for the health, comfort and entertain- 
ment of the crew. 

The fund thus made at Great Lakes was largely used 
for the development of athletics and amusement. The 
following is a partial list of the purchases made from 
this fund: Much miscellaneous stage equipment, in- 
cluding eight complete motion picture outfits; 10,000 
bleacher seats for the Main Athletic Field; lumber for 
indoor running tracks, hurdles, etc.; backstops for the 
Station and the Regimental baseball fields; 350 baseball 
suits complete, 500 pairs of baseball shoes, 12 sets of 
bases, 250 gloves, 50 bats, and 24,000 baseballs; 180 
footballs; 396 football uniforms, complete with pants, 



64 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

jerseys, helmets, shoulder pads, shoes, etc.; basket ball 
equipment, including 180 complete suits and 120 balls; 
wrestling, boxing and swimming material, including 150 
outfits for each sport, and 400 sets of boxing gloves in 
all about $65,000 worth of material. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE STATION BUILDERS 

ALL the departments at Great Lakes carried a tre- 
mendous load during the war period, overcom- 
ing in one way or another problem after prob- 
lem which at first seemed insurmountable. 

Of all the departments that of Public Works was 
probably most harassed by an ever increasing multi- 
tude of projects which had to be completed on given 
dates, no matter how great the handicap or the volume 
of work already being carried. If Captain Moffett 
wanted a regimental unit, or a huge drill hall, or five 
thousand wooden decks for the tented camps, he got 
them on the dates set. The construction of thirty-five 
barracks in Camp Barry in the course of one week, 
which has already been described in this history, was 
only one of hundreds of examples that might be drawn 
upon to show the efficiency of the Public Works Depart- 
ment. 

Briefly, the duties of the Public Works Department 
were to draw the plans for Great Lakes' wartime ex- 
pansion, down to the minutest detail ; supervise all con- 
struction, whether done by civilian contractors or by 
enlisted men; see to the upkeep of buildings, grounds 
and public works; operate the power house, the heating 
systems, the water supply, the sewage disposal; and to 
operate the carpenter, machine and paint shops. 

When Great Lakes experienced its first real attack 
of "growing pains," the problem of labor was one of no 

65 



66 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

mean proportion. To provide accommodations for the 
thousands of bluejackets during their embryonic period 
necessitated a tremendous amount of building. At first 
practically all this building work was done by civilian 
labor, but labor conditions in general were none too 
healthy at that time and the civilian forces were hardly 
adequate. The small communities in the vicinity of 
Great Lakes did not harbor a large industrial popula- 
tion. It was necessary for the contractors to bring the 
greater part of their workmen from Chicago each day, 
offering high wages, making arrangements for special 
trains, paying railroad fares and giving other induce- 
ments to get a large body of men together. 

Such a procedure was found impracticable for the 
work of maintaining the Station and for small con- 
struction jobs. This work increased by leaps and 
bounds as Great Lakes expanded, and so the Public 
Works Department was forced to utilize enlisted labor 
in order to keep pace with the demands. 

It was in this way the Public Works Regiment came 
into being. The need of its services rapidly increased 
as the civilian contractors completed the new canton- 
ments, for the Public Works Department was called 
upon to take over these camps and make many minor 
adjustments and improvements that had not been cov- 
ered by contract work. 

In order to accomplish this the regular training regi- 
ments were called upon to transfer to the Public Works 
Regiment all men who had had experience in the build- 
ing trades or who had enrolled as Landsmen for train- 
ing in the artificer branches. Scouts were placed in 
the Incoming Detention camps to hunt out recruits who 
had had artificer experience. 



THE STATION BUILDERS 67 

It may be well to state here that at no time was it the 
intention to use enlisted labor in competition with civil- 
ian labor working on contract projects. The larger 
construction work, with the exception of the two regi- 
mental units in Camp Paul Jones, the regimental unit in 
Camp Barry, the addition to Camp Farragut, several 
large office buildings, and the grandstand and bleachers 
of the Main Athletic Field, was all done by civilian con- 
tractors and civilian labor. But for every big contract 
job there were twenty-five smaller jobs that, because of 
their nature, could be handled better and more expedi- 
tiously by enlisted men. 

The Public Works Regiment was, of course, a train- 
ing as well as a working organization. Efficiency in 
construction depends upon organization more than upon 
men; on leadership more than on numbers. A well or- 
ganized group of one hundred mechanics, efficiently su- 
pervised, will accomplish more than five times their num- 
ber of equally skilled mechanics unorganized and under 
poor leadership. 

The purpose of the training in the Public Works 
Regiment was not so much to teach the artificer trades 
to "green" men as to assemble artificers, discover the 
abilities of each, select the natural leaders, work the 
men at their trades under these leaders, and teach them 
military drill and discipline. The endeavor was to have 
these men ready at all times for transfer to other sta- 
tions or naval bases in this country and abroad, and to 
the fighting ships. The average time the men were 
retained at Great Lakes was from three to four months, 
during which period, as already stated, they were used 
effectively on construction jobs and Station mainte- 
nance work. 



68 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

When war was declared, the Public Works Depart- 
ment consisted of about fifty civilian employees, mostly 
laborers, under the supervision of Mr. L. A. Pease, the 
engineer in charge of the Power House. There was 
no officer of the Civil Engineering Corps of the Navy 
on duty at Great Lakes at that time, and Lieutenant 
Tracy McCawley was Public Works Officer, along with 
his duties as head of the Intelligence Department. 
Lieutenant McCawley was immediately detached, how- 
ever, and Mr. L. A. Pease was temporarily appointed 
Public Works Officer. At this time the land surround- 
ing the Main Station was covered with timber, brush 
and crops. 

Early in May, 1917, the Public Works Department 
had grown until its forces included several hundred en- 
listed men, quartered wherever space could be found. 
The Main Power House was literally a hotel. Men 
were allowed to sleep in the offices at night and stow 
their bedding out of sight during the day. The first 
real quarters assigned to Public Works men was a small 
tent colony just north of the Administration Building. 

With the beginning of construction operations on a 
big scale a small group of skilled men, numbering about 
forty, was added to the Public Works force. These 
men were used mostly for surveying, drafting and in- 
spection work. At this time A. N. Smith, Civil Engi- 
neer, U. S. N., was sent from Washington to take 
charge of construction and relieve L. A. Pease as Pub- 
lic Works Officer. A short time later Commander 
George McKay, Civil Engineer, U. S. N., relieved A. 
N. Smith. 

From this point on the growth of the Public Works 



THE STATION BUILDERS 69 

Department was very rapid; in fact, so rapid that every 
proposed outline of organization became obsolete be- 
fore it could be put into efiect. In the fall of 1917 the 
Public Works Regiment started to construct barracks 
for its own use in Camp Paul Jones, but before these 
barracks were complete and ready to be occupied by 
the 850 men they would accommodate, the regiment 
was composed of 1500 men. 

In April, 1918, one year after the declaration of war, 
the Public Works regiment had a complement of 
2150 men. It was made up of three battalions of 
five companies each, and a Headquarters Company. 
The latter was composed of the division heads and 
other officers and rated men of the headquarters forces. 

In so far as was possible the men of the various 
trades represented were kept together in forming the 
companies and battalions. One battalion for instance, 
was formed of companies made up of carpenters and 
shipwrights; another of machinists, plumbers and fit- 
ters; and still another was made up of firemen. This 
made it possible for the battalion and company com- 
manders to familiarize themselves with the kinds of 
work to which they had to detail their men, and greatly 
simplified the keeping of records. If a gang of car- 
penters, painters, electricians or plumbers failed to ap- 
pear on a job as ordered, it was a simple matter accu- 
rately to place the blame. 

The head of the Pulic Works Department during 
1918 was Commander Walter H. Allen, Civil Engineer, 
U. S. N. Early in 1918 the business of the Public 
\Vorks Department was divided into three main di- 
visions, each of which was further subdivided into sec- 



70 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

tions. The three main divisions were designated as 
the Executive Office, the Construction Office, and the 
Regimental Office. 

The Executive Office directed the Station mainte- 
nance work, such as the operation of the powerhouse and 
heating plants, power distribution, telephone installa- 
tion, and all transportation on the Station by motor 
trucks or horse-drawn vehicles; the clerical work, such 
as correspondence, cost accounting, requisitions for sup- 
plies, and employment of civilian labor; and the hand- 
ling of all project work, such as plans and specifications 
for new construction, estimates, surveys, etc. 

The Construction Office had charge of all new con- 
struction work, whether done by contract labor or by 
the enlisted men. When the work was being done by 
contract labor it maintained a thorough inspection and 
pushed it through to completion. If the work was to 
be done by the enlisted forces, it obtained the necessary 
men from the regimental office, laid out the work and 
directed the construction. 

The Regimental Office had charge of the enlisted 
personnel of the Public Works Department in all mili- 
tary matters. It was held responsible for the detailing 
of men to do the different construction jobs; for the 
preparing of drafts of men to be sent to other stations 
or aboard the fleets; for the obtaining of new men to 
replace these drafts; and for the discipline, housing, 
feeding, and military instruction of all the enlisted men 
attached to the Public Works Department. 

The Public Works Department was later reorganized 
into five main divisions, known as the Contract Divi- 
sion, Projects Division, Station Labor Division, Clerical 
Division and Regimental Division. The Station Labor 



THE STATION BUILDERS 71 

Division was subdivided into five sections the Building 
Section, Ground Section, Main Power House Section, 
Transportation Section, and Mechanical Section. The 
Projects Division was subdivided into eight sections 
the Architectural Section, Sewer and Water Section, 
General Engineering Section, File and Blue Print Sec- 
tion, and Specification and Estimating Section. The 
Contract Division was made up of an Office Section, an 
Electrical Section, and two sections of field, road, lum- 
ber, sewer and water inspectors- The subdivisions of 
the Clerical Division including Correspondence, Ac- 
counting, Requisition, Inspection and Survey, Tele- 
phone and Real Estate sections. 

The Public Works Regiment reached its highest point 
in number of men on November 5, 1918, when the forces 
of the Public Works Department numbered fifty-five 
officers and 6211 enlisted men, formed into eleven bat- 
talions. 

The organization of the Public Works Department 
at Great Lakes on a military basis was so successful as 
to prove that it might well become a recognized military 
department of the Navy. With such an organization, 
trained mobile units were made available for construc- 
tion in any part of the world, and especially for train- 
ing stations, and naval and aviation bases. The forces 
of artificers so organized at Great Lakes were capable 
of doing duty either afloat or ashore. In addition to 
sending thousands of artificers to the fighting ships, this 
Public Works Department found it possible to take from 
its regiment large details of trained men and send them 
away under their own officers and petty officers, with 
designers to plan any kind of construction work, a 
clerical force to handle the paper work and construction 



72 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

records, material inspectors, etc. ; in fact, complete units 
capable of naval station construction in all its branches. 

Shortly after the United States declared war upon 
Germany the Public Works Department at Great Lakes 
was called upon by Captain Moffett to supply skilled 
artificers for duty aboard the fleets and at naval bases 
in European waters. There was a big demand for 
skilled mechanics of all branches. The men sent out 
from Great Lakes on these drafts were all good me- 
chanics, but knew nothing of the application of their 
trades aboard ship. 

Therefore, early in 1918, Lieutenant (j. g.) A. L. 
Pease, chief of the Power Maintenance Division of the 
Public Works Department, and Lieutenant (j. g.) W. E. 
Bringhurst foresaw the advantage to be gained by 
schooling men along the lines of their respective trades 
before sending them to sea. The details of a school 
were worked out by Lieutenant Bringhurst and sub- 
mitted to the Public Works Officer, Commander Walter 
H. Allen. The proposition was then taken to the Com- 
mandant, who sent it to the Bureau of Navigation for 
approval. The outcome was the establishment of the 
Artificers' School, with Lieutenant Bringhurst as Com- 
manding Officer. 

Classes in the Artificers' School were officially started 
in July, 1918, with an attendance of 100 students. 
These men received instruction in Electricity, Plumbing 
and Fitting, Ship Fitting, and Marine Machinery. The 
Plumber and Fitter Class was the first to be graduated, 
after an intensive course of eight weeks. This class 
was composed largely of rated men. The line of work 
given them included the care of the different piping sys- 
tems on board ship, both salt and fresh water, also 



THE STATION BUILDERS 73 

ventilation. The different details taken up included the 
repair of fire mains and flushing lines, valve construc- 
tion and repair, and the bending of steel, copper and 
lead piping. A side course in ship fitting was also 
given, as the rating of Ship Fitter is closely associated 
with that of Plumber and Fitter. The subjects taught 
in this course included the making of repairs to dam- 
aged hull plating, the construction and application of 
hard and soft patches, steel calking, and rivet driving 
and spanning in water and in oil-tight work. 

The electrical course of the Artificers' School ex- 
tended over a period of fifteen weeks, divided into five 
sections of three weeks each. The first section pro- 
vided instruction on steam turbines, internal combustion 
engines, and all such steam auxiliary devices as con- 
densers, circulating pumps, steam separators, boiler 
feed pumps, traps, and manifolds. The second section- 
provided instruction in the theory of electricity and 
magnetism, and the study of dynamos and motors. The 
instruction received in the third section consisted of the 
practical operation of dynamos and motors and motor 
control for ordnance gear. In the fourth section 
was taught the theory of the alternating current 
and battery, and the practical operation of all 
intercommunication apparatus. The fifth section in- 
structed the men on lighting, signaling, the searchlight, 
and electrical ship propulsion. 

To be eligible for entrance in the Artificers' School, a 
man had to know one of the trades taught. The school 
was not intended to teach its students a trade, but to 
provide him with training in the Navy's way of apply- 
ing his trade. 

During September and October, 1918, a total of 1450 



74 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

men were receiving instruction in the Artificers' School, 
and classes were being held both day and night. 

The officers of the Public Works Department were: 
Commander W. H. Allen, Officer in Charge; Lieutenant 
Willard Doud, Executive Officer; Lieutenant W. C. 
Davis; Lieutenant E. H. Clark; Lieutenant John Mc- 
Phee; Lieutenant (j. g.) H. E. Beard; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
R. K. Merrill; Lieutenant (j. g.) W. C. Monroe; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) W. E. Bringhurst; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
L. A. Pease; Lieutenant (j. g.) Jules Urbain; Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) H. L. Voight; Ensign C. B. Andrews; En- 
sign A. McDonald ; Ensign C. L. Rogers ; Ensign E. L. 
Schunck; Ensign P. E. Schunck; Ensign Cyril Talbot; 
Ensign C. I. Gebhardt; Ensign C. A. Gilmore; Ensign 
W. I. Thompson; Gunner C. R. DonDurant; Gunner 
E. T. Gould; Chief Carpenter C. J. Lishman; Machin- 
ist E. A. Chambers; Machinist James P. Chrisman; 
Machinist W. A. Dullach; Machinist A. C. Goodnow; 
Machinist A. W. Kyle; Machinist J. M. Rundberg; Ma- 
chinist A. F. Studzinski; Carpenter Howell Barnes; 
Carpenter J. E. Barto; Carpenter A. E. Brandt; Car- 
penter J. J. Femley ; Carpenter A. G. Garrett ; Carpenter 
H. W. Hoehnke; Carpenter W. H. Hough; Carpenter 
C. A. Klein; Carpenter P. E. Korman; Carpenter E. L. 
Nelson; Carpenter C. W. McCumber; Carpenter M. E. 
Pugh; Carpenter Albert Reisz; Carpenter J. B. Sul- 
livan; Carpenter Max Weivhelt; Carpenter John E. 
Willis. 



CHAPTER V 

THE HOSPITAL AND REGIMENTAL DISPENSARIES 

THE Navy's Medical Service at Great Lakes con- 
sisted of two separate and distinct branches 
the Medical Department of the Training Sta- 
tion itself, and the U. S. Naval Hospital, which may be 
designated as the "Hospital Group." 

To prevent serious illness is one thing; the care of 
the seriously ill another. Broadly speaking, the activ- 
ities of the Medical Department of the Station were 
directed to preserve the health of men and take care of 
their minor illnesses, while the Naval Hospital assumed 
the care of all cases of serious ill-health. 

The Naval Hospital, or hospital group, was located in 
a natural quiet zone, as it was cut off from the Main 
Station and the numerous training camps by two deep, 
thickly-wooded ravines. 

Prior to the war, the Hospital Group comprised the 
main hospital building, a laundry building, and the resi- 
dences of three medical officers. The main building, 
a massive brick structure splendidly equipped, contained 
four wards, each of which accommodated thirty beds; 
a thoroughly equipped operating room ; the offices of the 
medical staff; the main galley and mess hall; a labor- 
atory, dispensary, and special diet kitchen; and numer- 
ous storerooms. Each of the wards had a large sun 
parlor. 

On the day that war was declared the hospital con- 
tained one hundred and eighty patients, some of whom 

75 



76 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

were being accommodated in the laundry building and 
in one of the storerooms. There were no contagious 
units. 

The erection of three contagious units was begun in 
May, 1917, and completed two months later, providing 
accommodation for seventy-five beds, twenty-five in 
each unit. Six additional contagious units, somewhat 
larger, with a barracks building and galley and mess hall 
for the attendants, were started in July, 1917, and com- 
pleted in September, providing two hundred and fifty 
additional beds for contagious patients. 

The construction of the main portion of the emer- 
gency hospital group was commenced in August, 1917, 
and completed the following December. At the begin- 
ning of 1918, therefore, the Hospital Group comprised 
the main hospital building; ten H-shaped ward units, 
each of which contained two large wards; nine contag- 
ious units ; three subsistence buildings in which food was 
prepared for service in the wards and mess halls; a 
group of dormitories, with galley and mess hall, for 
the nurses; a group of barracks for the hospital corps- 
men, a garage for the motor ambulances, a power house, 
laundries, refrigerating plant, incinerator plant, etc. 
These emergency buildings were all of wooden construc- 
tion, but had a brighter, more homelike appearance 
than the buildings in the numerous training camps. 
They were painted white, with green trim around the 
windows and doors, and the wards and dormitories had 
porches which made them appear more like cottages 
than barracks. All these buildings were double-walled, 
thus providing an air space that made for warmth in 
winter and coolness in summer; the floors were double, 



DISPENSARIES 77 

assuring warmth under foot; and the radiation (steam 
was used for heating) was sufficient to allow for open 
windows even in the coldest weather. This emergency 
construction, which gave the Hospital Group a capacity 
of 1400 beds, cost $1,500,000. An additional $300,000 
was spent during 1917 for new hospital equipment. 

During the spring and summer of 1918 additional 
quarters were constructed for the nurses; three deep 
artesian wells were drilled to give the Hospital Group a 
better quality of water than that obtainable from Lake 
Michigan ; and two large observation wards were built, 
along with numerous other smaller buildings. And in 
September, 1918, Camp Ross which had been used up 
to that time as a Detention Unit was taken over as an 
addition to the Hospital Group. This added about fifty 
buildings to the Hospital Group, giving it a total ca- 
pacity of about 2800 beds. 

The number of patients cared for from April 6, 1917,. 
to November 10, 1918, were 15,900. Of this number 
about four thousand were measles, German measles, and 
mumps patients. The hardest strain the Hospital 
Group had to bear came in the autumn of 1918, as the 
result of the influenza epidemic. The number of in- 
fluenza patients transferred to the Hospital Group dur- 
ing the months of September and November was 2484. 

During the final months of the war, the staff of the 
Hospital Group consisted of about eighty medical of- 
ficers; 165 nurses all of whom were qualified members 
of the regular Navy or Naval Reserve Corps; and 270 
Hospital Corpsmen, graduates of the Hospital Corps 
Training School at Great Lakes. The commanding of- 
ficer of the Hospital Group during the entire war period 



7 8 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

was Captain H. E. Odell, Medical Corps, U. S. N. His 
Executive Officer was Commander H. F. Hull, Medical 
Corps, U. S. N. 

THE REGIMENTAL DISPENSARIES 

As already stated, the health of the men at Great 
Lakes was looked out for by the Medical Department 
of the Station itself. This department was in charge 
of the Main Dispensary, the Psychiatric Unit, the Regi- 
mental Dispensaries; had general supervision of the 
medical and sanitary conditions on the Station ; and con- 
ducted the physical examination and the culturing of 
all incoming and outgoing recruits. 

The duties of the staff of medical officers attached to 
this department were many and various. One of the 
most important was the practice of preventive medicine. 
This staff vaccinated the men to prevent smallpox; im- 
munized them from typhoid fever by injections of anti- 
typhoid serum ; applied the Schick test to determine im- 
munity to diphtheria, and took throat cultures for the 
purpose of discovering and isolating chronic carriers of 
cerebrospinal fever. It combated the fly and mosquito 
peril by providing for the proper handling of garbage, 
by draining or oiling all still water swamps and pools 
in the vicinity of the Station, and by treating manure 
piles to kill the fly egg and maggot. It inspected all the 
milk and soft drinks and water used on the Station and 
in the vicinity, providing for sanitary handling of them. 

It inspected the mess halls, galleys, sculleries and 
barber shops for sanitation. And, in addition, it at- 
tended to all the minor illnesses of the men on the 
Station, sending them to the Hospital Group only where 
the cases were serious or liable to become so. It also 



DISPENSARIES 79 

cared for the sick who were living off the Station, and 
this included the families of the men as well as the men 
themselves. 

A month before the declaration of war the Medical 
Department consisted of two medical officers, one den- 
tal surgeon, three chief pharmacists' mates and eight 
pharmacists' mates. The latter part of March, 1917, 
two additional medical officers reported for duty. The 
overcrowding of men had already become appreciable 
and a tent colony was started to accommodate recruits. 
Sick calls were held in the sick bay in Incoming Deten- 
tion, where there were only eight beds for a daily sick 
call of two hundred men; and in the Main Sick -Bay, 
adjacent to the Drill Hall. A report, dated March 13, 
1917, stated that the Main Dispensary had only ten 
beds and no other space for observation of patients 
without the exposure of one hundred and fifty men at 
sick call. Three days later there were thirty patients 
in the Main Dispensary, all beds were occupied and the 
remainder of the sick were accommodated on their own 
mattresses on the deck. A small armory adjoining the 
dispensary had been furnished with six beds and was 
used as an isolation and observation ward. The Naval 
Hospital was at this time unequipped for the handling 
of contagious diseases, so a barracks in Incoming De- 
tention was used to accommodate such cases when they 
were mild or convalescent. 

During the three months following the declaration 
of war conditions improved steadily. Each tented 
camp had its own dispensary and sick bay, likewise in 
tents. Medical Inspector C. M. DeValin reported in 
May to assume charge of the Medical Department. In 
June the staff consisted of thirty-six medical officers. 



seven dental officers, two pharmacists, and forty-nine 
hospital corpsmen. 

A shortage of blankets and blue clothing, together 
with unusually rainy weather, prevented the use of all 
the tents, and this resulted in considerable overcrowding 
in the barracks. Overcrowding was especially danger- 
ous because men could not be kept long enough to 
undergo a detention period covering the incubation of 
mumps, measles and scarlatina. 

On May 14, 1917, a Sanitation Division was organ- 
ized with Lieutenant D. E. Hillis at its head. During 
the summer this organization exercised supervision over 
the water supply, sewerage and garbage disposal, sterili- 
zation of mess gear, and all sanitary activities on the 
Station. 

During June, July, August and September, 1917, all 
the enlisted men were quartered in tents. This out- 
door life gave them a bronzed and healthy appearance. 
They usually gained about ten pounds in weight during 
their first two weeks of this life. 

The last three months in 1917 were marked by the 
occupation of the new wooden cantonments. Each of 
the Regimental Units composing the new camps had its 
own dispensary and sick bay and an isolation building. 
The staff of the Medical Department consisted at this 
time of fifty-four medical officers, thirteen dental sur- 
geons, two pharmacists, and 180 hospital corpsmen de- 
tailed to the medical headquarters, the twelve regimen- 
tal dispensaries, the psychiatric unit, the laboratory, and 
the recruiting office. In November Surgeon Owen G. 
Mink became Senior Medical Officer to relieve Medical 
Inspector DeValin. 

In the plans for the new Regimental Units, built in 



DISPENSARIES 81 

1918, provision was made for enlarged and improved 
dispensary units and isolation cubicles. 

With the disappearance of snow and the advent of 
milder weather in the spring of 1918, it was again pos- 
sible to relieve congestion and crowding by the use of 
tents for quartering the men. Coincident with this, the 
general supervision of sanitation was resumed by the 
Sanitation Officer and his staff, as in the previous sum- 
mer. For this work the Station was divided into seven 
districts, in each of which a group of hospital corpsmen 
made daily inspections and carried out sanitary meas- 
ures under the direction of the Sanitary Officer and his 
assistant, who covered the entire Station daily. In ad- 
dition to the usual activities for improving Station Sani- 
tation, further protection was secured by the advisory 
regulation of the civilian restaurants and other business 
places to which the men had access in the surrounding 
civil communities. 

The outstanding medical feature of the third quarter 
of 1918 was the epidemic of influenza which struck 
Great Lakes in September. The policy of treating the 
majority of the patients in the regimental dispensaries 
and transferring to the Hospital Group only the serious 
cases and those in which pneumonia developed was fol- 
lowed throughout the epidemic. By this means a great 
overcrowding of the hospital group was avoided and 
early treatment was made more certain. During the 
critical period barracks adjoining the dispensaries were 
used to house the sick. The services of the hospital 
corpsmen were supplemented by volunteers from the 
Hospital Corps Training School and from the different 
departments and regiments. A great many of these 
volunteers had had some experience in caring for the 



82 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

sick and all of them rendered valuable assistance. 
Y. M. C. A. secretaries and Red Cross workers also 
contributed largely to the successful handling of the 
situation, the Y. M. C. A. huts being turned over for use 
as wards. In addition to the care of the Navy person- 
nel and families sick in the vicinity of the Station, as- 
sistance was also given civilians in neighboring cities 
and towns by the loan of hospital corpsmen to the hos- 
pitals. The epidemic affected about one-fifth of the 
population of Great Lakes, with a mortality of nineteen 
per thousand. 

When Great Lakes reached the crest of its expansion, 
the medical officers, thirty-seven dental officers, several 
pharmacists, and 440 hospital corpsmen, the number of 
regimental dispensaries had increased to eighteen. 

It may be of interest to know just what the procedure 
was at Great Lakes in case of illness. When a man 
became indisposed, he appeared at sick call, or his case 
was reported to the medical officer in charge of the dis- 
pensary of the Regimental Unit in which he was quar- 
tered. If the indisposition was not serious, or conta- 
gious, the patient got no further than the sick bay of this 
dispensary, but was kept there for treatment. If the 
nature of the case was suspicious, the patient was im- 
mediately placed in one of the sections or cubicles of 
the isolation building, where he remained until the na- 
ture of his indisposition became clear. In either in- 
stance, however, the moment the case developed alarm- 
ing symptoms the patient was placed in an ambulance 
and hurried to the Hospital Group. Once there, the 
jurisdiction of the staff of the Medical Department 
ceased, and the medical staff of the Hospital Group took 
hold of the case. The next step was to place the patient 



DISPENSARIES 83 

under the care of a medical officer especially qualified 
to handle the particular case, and, if the condition of 
the patient was serious, to assign a special nurse to con- 
stant duty at his bedside. Under such conditions and 
there was no exception to this rule the parents or wife 
of the patient were immediately notified by official tele- 
gram, and further telegrams were sent as long as the 
patient's condition remained desperate. Close relatives 
of the patients were allowed every opportunity to be 
with them in the hospital wards, except in dangerously 
contagious cases. 

The Medical Staff of the Hospital consisted of the 
following officers, just prior to the signing of the arm- 
istice: Captain H. E. Odell, Commanding Officer; Com- 
mander H. F. Hull, Executive Officer; Commander 
J. M. Minter, Sub-Executive Officer; Lieutenant Com- 
mander C. H. Auf hammer, Sub-Executive Officer; 
Lieutenant-Commander N. H. Clark, Sub-Executive 
Officer; Lieutenant-Commander C. W. Carr, Sub- 
Executive Officer; Lieutenant W. A. Brams, Sub-Ex- 
ecutive Officer; Lieutenant W. E. Carson; Lieutenant 
R. W. Holbrook; Lieutenant R. L. Larson; Lieutenant 
J. F. McCullough; Lieutenant F. B. McNierney; Lieu- 
tenant J. S. Plumer; Lieutenant F. A. Reickhoff ; Lieu- 
tenant N. W. Shelley; Lieutenant (j. g.) D. H. Adams; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) F. J. Albers; Lieutenant (j. g.) E. D. 
Anderson; Lieutenant (j. g.) T. O. Anderson; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) C. E. Beede; Lieutenant (j. g.) R. F. 
Ballaire; Lieutenant (j. g.) D. E. Broderick, Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) G. E. Burman; Lieutenant (j. g.) Harry 
Burns; Lieutenant (j. g.) K. S. Caldwell; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) C. B. Childs; Lieutenant (j. g.) C. N. Colbert; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) W. L. Colby; Lieutenant (j. g.) 



S 4 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

B. O. Dysart; Lieutenant (j. g.) W. L. Fleck; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) F. G. Folken; Lieutenant (j. g.) M. E. 
Fulk; Lieutenant (j. g.) J. W. Gamble; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) R. E. Gaston; Lieutenant (j. g.) C. J. Grieves; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) E. P. Hall; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
J. H. Harris; Lieutenant (j. g.) W. W. Hall; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) G. A. Hass; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
H. C. Hocum; Lieutenant (j. g.) C. P. Holland; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) W. C. Ives; Lieutenant (j. g.) A. J. 
Jongeward; Lieutenant (j. g.) H. J. Kooiker; Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) R. J. Leutsker; Lieutenant (j. g.) D. L. 
Liberman; Lieutenant (j. g.) A. J. Link; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) R. R. Loar; Lieutenant (j. g.) R. R. Losey; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) W. M. Lott; Lieutenant (j. g.) E. F. 
Lundquist; Lieutenant (j. g.) B. W. Malfroid; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) J. B. Marks; Lieutenant (j. g.) L. R. 
Melinkoff ; Lieutenant (j. g.) R. J. Mercey; Lieutenant 
(j- &) T. B. N. Murphy; Lieutenant (j. g.) Donald 
McCarthy; Lieutenant (j. g.) R. J. McCurdy; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) R. W. McNeally; Lieutenant (j. g.) W. B. 
McWilliams; Lieutenant (j. g.) A. H. Orcutt; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) George W. Palm; Lieutenant (j. g.) Isom 
A. Rankin; Lieutenant (j. g.) William B. Parent; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) George B. Quinn; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
J. W. RateclifT; Lieutenant (j. g.) Arthur G. Rieke; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) H. B. Sanford; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
Burton V. Scott; Lieutenant (j. g.) John M. Slattery; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) Jerome F. Smersh; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
Albert M. Snell; Lieutenant (j. g.) Alfred J. H. 
Treacy; Lieutenant (j. g. ) James H. Wallace; Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) John M. Whalen; Lieutenant (j. g.) Homer 
Woolery; Pharmacist W. F. Bly; Pharmacist Charles 
E. Miller; Pharmacist Claude E. Worden. 



DISPENSARIES 85 

The medical officers attached to the Medical Depart- 
ment of the Station itself, just prior to the signing of 
the armistice, were : Commander Owen J. Mink, Senior 
Medical Officer; Lieutenant Commander James D. Bob- 
bitt; Lieutenant Commander David S. Hillis; Lieuten- 
ant Warren E. Bradbury; Lieutenant Robert C. Brad- 
ley; Lieutenant Drew Luten; Lieutenant Francis I. 
Ridge; Lieutenant Clarence V. Spawr; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) Samuel J. Alden; Lieutenant (j. g.) Ward C. 
Alden; Lieutenant (j. g.) James F. Anderson; Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) E. G. Archibold; Lieutenant (j. g.) Chas. W. 
Barrier; Lieutenant (j. g.) Delbert R. Blender; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) Oscar E. Blank; Lieutenant (j. g.) James 
P. Bowles; Lieutenant (j. g.) Cyrus C. Brown; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) Lloyd A. Burrows; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
Verne B. Calloman; Lieutenant (j. g.) Clarence A. 
Chandler; Lieutenant (j. g.) Roger M. Choisser; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) Harold P. Cole; Lieutenant (j. g.) John 
P. Coughlin; Lieutenant (j. g.) Joel I. Denman; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) Frederick J. Fakins; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
Moury I. Ellis; Lieutenant (j. g.) Robert M. Ent- 
whistle; Lieutenant (j. g.) Clement Fisher; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) Paul J. Flory; Lieutenant (j. g.) Max W. Flo- 
thow; Lieutenant (j. g.) Andrew H. Frankel; Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) James K. Gordon; Lieutenant (j. g.) J. Ellis 
Hodes; Lieutenant (j. g.) Hardy V. Hughens; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) Myron E. Kahn; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
Aaron E. Kanter; Lieutenant (j. g.) W. Ivan King; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) Chas. A. Koeningsberger ; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) Gustave A. Larson; Lieutenant (j. g.) Charles 
Lieber; Lieutenant (j. g.) Martin R. Lorenzen; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) Francis V. Mallory; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
Hubert F. Meacham; Lieutenant (j. g.) Harvey W. 



86 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Miller; Lieutenant (j. g.) Harry W. Moore; Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) Leo T. McNicholas; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
Trygve Oftedal; Lieutenant (j. g.) Patrick H. Owens; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) Fred R. Reed; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
Edwin F. Robb; Lieutenant (j. g.) Eugene F. Sayers; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) Robert L. Schaefer; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) Robert F. Schanz; Lieutenant (j. g.) Jeremy J. 
Sharp; Lieutenant (j. g.) Emil J. Stelter; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) John W. Stuhr; Lieutenant (j. g.) Roland B. 
Taber; Lieutenant (j. g.) James C. Walker; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) John M. Walker; Lieutenant (j. g.) Hiram B. 
West; Pharmacist Ernest C. Brooks; Pharmacist 
George R. Hansen; Pharmacist Carson A. Nelson; 
Pharmacist Harry L. Rogers; Pharmacist William L. 
Stewart. 

The officers of the Dental Corps attached to the Med- 
ical Department were: Lieutenant Commander E. E. 
Harris ; Lieutenant Commander A. F. McCreary ; Lieu- 
tenant C. A. Chandler; Lieutenant H. S. Hursh; Lieu- 
tenant H. C. Miller; Lieutenant W. B. Nash; Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) A. B. Applebee; Lieutenant (j. g.) W. H. 
Barnfield; Lieutenant (j. g.) Samuel Barr; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) B. H. Barton; Lieutenant (j. g.) C. H. Bleeg; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) J. W. Bourquin; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
F. E. Campbell; Lieutenant (j. g.) H. G. Carmichael; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) Maurice Cohen; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
W. E. Coverley; Lieutenant (j. g.) D. G. Dampier; 
Lieutenant (j. ?.) G. A. Dezois; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
H. B. Duncan; Lieutenant (j. g.) F. J. Edelstein; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) L. A. Francis; Lieutenant (j. g.) W. S. 
Forth; Lieutenant (j. g.) M. H. Furman; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) H. W. Gamble; Lieutenant (j. g.) J. E. Gib- 
bons; Lieutenant (j. g.) W. H. Hubbard; Lieutenant 




Captain H. E. Odell and Lieutenant-Commander H. F. Hull, with Medical Officers 

attached to the Hospital 

The Interior of a Hospital Ward 

The Board of Medical Survey 




Ensign P. B. Riley, Commanding Officer of Outgoing Detention, and his Assistants 

" Still " Practice with Field Guns 
Waiting for the Call to " Shove Off " 



DISPENSARIES 87 

(j. g.) E. Q. Heely; Lieutenant (j. g.) C. P. Holland; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) C. B. Johnson; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
M. P. Kane; Lieutenant (j. g.) W. J. Kennedy; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) E. J. Kiesendahl; Lieutenant (j. g.) Ed- 
mund Laughlin; Lieutenant (j. g.) Leon Levy; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) T. J. McCarthy; Lieutenant (j. g.) R. S. 
Maxwell; Lieutenant (j. g.) Mortimer Mayer; Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) K. W. Messner; Lieutenant (j. g.) C. L. 
Norris; Lieutenant (j. g.) W. I. Northup; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) J. R. Palkin; Lieutenant (j. g.) August Pecaro; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) W. P. E. Reed; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
C. W. Rodgers; Lieutenant (j. g.) D. W. Rupert; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) C. O. Sandstrom; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
Emanuel Scher; Lieutenant (j. g.) Samuel Segal; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) L. F. Snyder; Lieutenant (j. g.) R. C. 
Green; Lieutenant (j. g.) A. L. Souter; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) Bernard Spiro; Lieutenant (j. g.) M. G. Swen- 
sen; Lieutenant (j. g.) O. J. Tagland; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
A. R. Tahblinng; Lieutenant (j. g.) E. S. Talbot; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) W. R. Taylor; Lieutenant (j. g.) E. C. 
Varner; Lieutenant (j. g.) Louis Wolf; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) E. J. Zajicek; Lieutenant (j. g.) R. J. Bailey; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) P. G. Brown; Lieutenant (j. g.) A. L. 
Burleigh; Lieutenant (j. g) N. E. Drake; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) L. V. Feike; Lieutenant (j. g.) H. D. Hipsh; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) F. R. Hittinger; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
H. L. Kalen; Lieutenant (j. g.) E. B. Keffer; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) J. A. Kelly; Lieutenant (j. g.) Irl Knight; 
Lieutenant (j. g.) W. F. Kramer; Lieutenant (j. g.) 
R. N. Lindbeck; Lieutenant (j. g.) R. J. O'Donnell;. 
Lieutenant (j. g.) W. F. Quinn; Lieutenant (j. g.) H. G. 
Ralph; Lieutenant (j. g.) Walter Rehrauer; Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) C. E Reynolds; Lieutenant (j. g.) A. L, 



88 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Schwalb; Lieutenant (j. g.) T. W. Spear; Lieutenant 
(j- &) C. W. Stegmaier; Lieutenant (j. g.) D. P. Tag- 
gart; Lieutenant (j. g.) F. E. Turnbaugh; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) Louis Wainman; Lieutenant (j, g.) J. A. Walt- 
ers; Lieutenant (j. g.) V. D. Whitaker; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) H. C. Wickham; Lieutenant (j. g.) E. H. 
Zimmer. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE "DETENTION" AND APPRENTICE SEAMEN 
REGIMENTS 

THE section of Great Lakes known as "Incoming- 
Detention," at first consisting of one regimental 
unit and finally of four such units, was in many 
respects one of the most interesting sub-divisions of the 
Station during the war period. And particularly was 
this so to the recruit himself. 

It was in Incoming Detention that more than 125,000 
of the youth of the Middle West were introduced to the 
Navy's "hurry-up" program for converting civilians 
into man-of-warsmen, for transforming men of peace- 
ful pursuits into fighting sailors. They entered Incom- 
ing Detention in droves, a shambling, uncertain, be- 
wildered crowd of the great undisciplined. 

In Incoming Detention they passed through the rookie 
stage, the period of greatest change ; the "Hit-the-deck !" 
period during which they learned in no uncertain way 
that the Navy had a vocabulary all its own and a use 
for it. 

It was in Incoming Detention, in an exceptionally 
busy "take-it-or-leave-it" kind of men's furnishings 
emporium, that they got their first outfit of sailor 
clothes an emporium in which the "salty guys" who 
"dished out" the clothing knew all there was to know 
about proper fit, and in which the only mirror was the 
grin of commiseration on a companion's face. But one 
question was asked and only one answer allowed in the 

89 



90 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

outfitting of a recruit, and that had to do with the size 
of his feet. In those feet he could stand 5 ft. 3 in., or 
6 ft. 6 in., with a waist line of 32 or 46 in., without the 
difference being of any great moment. The alterations 
required were few and of minor detail, consisting mostly 
of the shortening of trousers, which kept ten tailors 
continually busy. 

It was in Incoming Detention that the recruit became 
homesick and got over it, where he made everlasting 
friendships, and laid deep plans (Oh, Boy!) for that 
first twelve hours of "shore leave." It was likewise in 
Incoming Detention that he was first introduced to the 
Ki-yi brush and the coal pile where he scrubbed his 
whites until his shoulders ached and then wore that 
lily-white uniform directly aboard a coal pile and had 
to scrub all over again. 

The main purpose of Incoming Detention was, of 
course, to segregate the new men for the twenty-one day 
period during which would develop any contagious dis- 
ease they might have come in contact with before arriv- 
ing at Great Lakes. Health, physical and mental, was 
the foundation upon which all the rest discipline, 
seamanship, gunnery was built. So in Incoming De- 
tention the recruit also got his first dose of the Navy's 
way of assuring his good health, individually and col- 
lectively. 

From the moment the recruit arrived in Incoming De- 
tention he was under the constant supervision of a par- 
ticularly large and efficient medical staff. The watch- 
word was "Prevention." Cigarettes, chewing tobacco, 
chewing gum, all matches that were not of the "safety" 
variety, bowie knives, pistols, and any supply of patent 
medicines or "home cures" were confiscated the moment 



APPRENTICE SEAMEN REGIMENTS 91 

the recruit arrived. He was allowed, however, to re- 
tain and use his pipe and smoking tobacco. 

The next health step was a bath, which was part of 
the daily routine, and a haircut if it was needed. Fol- 
lowing these preliminaries he appeared at the medical 
headquarters and received a thoroughly physical ex- 
amination. Then he got the first of the three injections 
(shots) of anti-typhoid serum, was vaccinated, and 
given the Schick test for immunity to diphtheria. After 
he was through with these very important preventive 
measures, his throat was cultured to determine whether 
or not he was a chronic carrier of cerebro-spinal fever. 
When the medical examiners got through with him, he 
was turned over to the dental surgeons for such emer- 
gency work as the extraction of all decayed roots, a 
thorough spring house-cleaning of his teeth, the treat- 
ment of unhealthy gums, and the remedying of all acute 
conditions. His entire set of teeth was also charted 
for repair work. 

By such means the health of the boy who entered the 
Navy was protected to an extent that is seldom carried 
out in civil life. From the moment the recruit arrived 
in Incoming Detention he was constantly drilled in meas- 
ures of health. He was warned that cleanliness is god- 
liness in the Navy, and that any infraction of the health 
rules laid down by the medical staff would result in- pun- 
ishment. 

The detention period, as Lieutenant (j. g.) John 
Sharpe, Officer in charge of Incoming Detention under- 
stood it, was of the utmost importance in determining 
whether a man would be a benefit or a detriment to the 
Navy. So it became his purpose to instill strict disci- 
pline from the very beginning, to start the recruit on his 



92 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

way with a proper conception of his duties both to him- 
self and to the service. Therefore the recruit got the 
preliminary steps of his training in Incoming Detention, 
as well as his clothing and his inoculations. Infantry 
formations and drill were started in many instances im- 
mediately a company was formed and even before the 
men were outfitted. The primary purpose of a man's 
enlistment was his ultimate perfection for service afloat, 
and this was fostered from the first day on, not only by 
discipline and drills, but by labor of various kinds, in- 
cluding the coal pile. 

Lieutenant Sharpe also understood that the detention 
period was the "lonesome" period, so a great amphi- 
theatre was constructed in the ravine separating Camps 
Decatur and Farragut. During the summer months 
outdoor entertainments of every conceivable nature, 
from rookie boxing bouts to grand opera and the Rus- 
sian dancers, were provided. Some of the highest class 
acts in vaudeville were billed, and the enthusiasm dis- 
played by the lonesome rookies was ample compensation. 
Great songfests were also held under the direction of 
Herbert Gould. 

Another source of entertainment was the institution 
of a zoo, which started with the presentation to the 
Officer in Command of two big brown bears, John and 
Susie. The zoo grew until it contained three bears, 
two deer, three American eagles, eight goats (mountain 
variety), three badgers, twenty-five rabbits, two ferrets, 
two owls, two guinea pigs, a possum and a hawk. 

Lieutenant (j. g.) John Sharpe, U. S. N., was the of- 
ficer in charge of the Incoming Detention Camps. The 
regimental commanders who assisted him were: C. E. 
Munson, Gunner, U. S. N.; M. A. Sandberg, Boatswain, 



APPRENTICE SEAMEN REGIMENTS 93 

U. S. N. ; Ned P. Baugh, Chief Quartermaster, U. S. N. ; 
and A. J. Hardy, Chief Gunner's Mate, U. S. N. 

THE APPRENTICE SEAMEN REGIMENTS 

The training organization at Great Lakes during the 
war period consisted of a division, brigades, regiments, 
battalions and companies. The Commandant was Di- 
vision Commander, and the Executive Officer was Divi- 
sion Adjutant. The Drill Officer was Brigade Com- 
mander, and as such was responsible for all men under 
training. Commissioned and Warrant Officers were 
assigned as Regimental Commanders, and Warrant and 
Chief Petty Officers as Regimental Adjutants. Bat- 
talion Commanders were Warrant or Chief Petty Of- 
ficers, and the company commanders were men selected 
from the seaman branch and given special course of 
study in the Petty Officers' School. 

Apprentice seamen formed the bulk of the men trained 
at Great Lakes. These men were all given their train- 
ing in the First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Regi- 
ments. 

The apprentice seamen were received by these regi- 
ments from Incoming Detention in companies of 144 
men. Upon receipt of information from the Receiving 
Group that one of these regiments was to receive a new 
company, a company commander was ordered to stand 
by to take charge of it. Assisted by his two Section 
Chiefs, he assured himself that the jackstays for swing- 
ing hammocks and tricing up sea bags were secure ; that 
the barracks were supplied with the proper number of 
sneeze screens ; that doors and windows were fitted with 
screens in proper season; that the barracks were thor- 



94 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

oughly cleaned and ventilated, and that the necessary 
cleaning utensils were at hand. 

The new company was marched over from Incoming 
Detention by an Apprentice Petty Officer who had in his 
possession a duplicate muster list and the transfer cards 
of the men. The baggage of the men was transported 
by motor trucks. One muster list was given to the 
Company Commander for his information, and another 
muster list and the transfer cards were taken up by the 
receiving yeoman, who immediately filed the cards alpha- 
betically by company. In addition to this a supplemen- 
tary card muster was maintained at Regimental Head- 
quarters. 

The new company was received by the Regimental 
Adjutant, the Battalion Commander, the Company Com- 
mander and his Section Chiefs, and the Receiving Yeo- 
man. The men were marched up and halted in front of 
their respective barracks, where they were mustered and 
the necessary Station and Regimental Regulations were 
read to them. The company was then divided into two 
sections, and the necessary details were made up as fol- 
lows : One sentry in each section, four reliefs a total 
of eight men per twenty-four hours ; two captains of the 
head one in each section of the barracks; seven mess 
cooks relieved weekly; two jacks-of-the-dust relieved 
weekly. 

The training in the Apprentice Seamen regiments 
covered a period of three months, as a general rule. 
There were times, however, when the demands for men 
were so great that apprentice seamen had to be trans- 
ferred to sea before the entire period was completed. 
In the ordinary course of events the men were given 



APPRENTICE SEAMEN REGIMENTS 95 

ten days' leave when they finished their three months' 
training. The principal subjects taught the seamen 
were military drill and seamanship. The latter prob- 
ably made the greater appeal to the recruit from the 
Middle West, as it smacked of the sea. The former, al- 
though as vitally important in the making of a man-of- 
warsman, was not so distinctive. When one thinks of 
tying knots, splicing ropes, and manning boats, one nat- 
urally thinks of the sailor. It is the backbone of all that 
is nautical. 

Every seaman at Great Lakes received a thorough 
course of instruction in tying all the kinds of knots used 
at sea. He learned when an overhand knot should be 
used and when a round turn was appropriate. He 
could differentiate between a Marlin Hitch, a Clove 
Hitch, and a Rolling Hitch. He learned to converse in 
the terms of rope. Before he finished his course in 
marlinspike seamanship he knew how to tie thirty-seven 
knots and to make twenty-four kinds of splices. 

The "Hemp Course" qualified the apprentice seaman 
to reproduce the following knots, hitches and bends, and 
splices: Overhand knot; figure of eight knot; square 
knot; single Becket bend; double Becket bend; bowline; 
bowline on a bight; running bowline; ring bowline; 
round turn and two half hitches; round turn; fisher- 
man's bend; Marlin hitch; glove hitch; rolling hitch; 
Marlin spike hitch; studding sail tack bend; studding 
sail halyard bend; timber hitch; longshoreman's hitch; 
catspaw in end of a line; catspaw in bight of a line; 
Blackwall hitch; single and double; reeving line bend; 
sheep shank; sling a cask; bale sling; rig a parbuckle; 
single Carrick bend; double Car rick bend; knot a rope 
yarn; pass a stopper; pass a strop; mouse a hook; clap a 



9 6 

jigger on a rope; belay a boat fall; take a turn with a 
hawser; three-strand eye splice; three-strand short 
splice ; four-strand short splice ; back splice ; three-strand 
lone splice; four-strand long splice; chain splice; wall; 
crown; single Mathew Walker; double Mathew 
Walker; man rope knot; stopper knot; whipping 
(plain); whipping (sailmaker's) flat seizings; round 
seizings; racking seizings; throat seizings; worm a 
rope; parcel a rope; serve a rope. 

The importance of knowing how to man the boat, 
coupled with the shortage of cutters for use in the har- 
bor and lake, resulted in the construction of a number 
of unique land boats for use in the apprentice seamen 
regiments. This gave the men in these regiments an 
additional opportunity to try their hand at the oars. 
They were taught how to enter and leave the boats, 
and how to execute the different commands, such as 
"Stand by the oars," "Shove off," "Out oars," "Give 
way together," "Toss oars," etc. 

Signal work is very important at sea. For the pur- 
pose of signaling, signal bridges were built on the roofs 
of the regimental headquarters buildings. Each bridge 
was equipped with a mast and yard arm for hoisting 
signal flags, and were clearly visible above the tree tops. 
Every morning, at eight o'clock, the signal men of each 
regiment climbed to the bridge to receive the morning 
orders, which were semaphored, wigwagged, or sig- 
naled with flags from the Administration Building. 
This actual work with the signal flags lent zest to the 
instruction in signaling, and was watched with keen 
interest by every man in training. 

The daily routine of training in the apprentice sea- 
men regiments was as follows: 



APPRENTICE SEAMEN REGIMENTS 97 

5:00 a. m. Reveille (Hit the Deck) Lash up ham- 
mocks and haul taut. 

5:15 a. m. Bathing. 

5 :45 a. m. Send out morning details, police barracks 
and grounds. 

6:30 a. m. Physical drill. 

6:45 a - m - Officers' call. 

6:50 a. m. Assembly for Muster, Inspection and Mess. 

7:30 a. m. Sick call. 

7:45 a. m. Inspection of living quarters and grounds 
by Company Commanders. 

7:50 a. m. Officers' Call. 

:oo a. m. Assembly and drill call, first drill period. 

9:00 a. m. Retreat from drill. 

9:15 a. m. Drill call, second period. 

10:15 a. m. Retreat from second drill period. 

10:30 a. m. Drill call, third period. 

1 1 :25 a. m. Retreat from third drill period. All 
companies to march to drill hall for doctor's inspection. 

1 1 :3O a. m. Reports at Mast. 

ii :58 a. m. Officers' call. 

12:00 Noon Assembly for mess. 

12:30 p. m. Policing living quarters and grounds. 

12:58 p. m. Officers' Call. 

i :oo p. m. Drill call, fourth period and muster for 
working parties. 

2:15 p. m. Retreat from fourth drill period. 

2:30 p. m. Drill call, fifth period. 

3:30 p. m. Retreat from fifth drill period. Scrub 
clothes. 

5 :28 p. m. Officers' call. 

5:30 p. m. Assembly for mess (summer months). 

6:30 p. m. Assembly for mess (winter months). 



98 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

7:00 p. m. Muster and hammocks for guard company. 

7:45 p. m. Officers' call. Inspection of quarters by 
Battalion Officer of the Day. 

7:50 p. m. Assembly and muster. 

8:00 p. m. Hammocks. 

8:55 p. m. First call for tattoo. 

9 :oo p. m. Tattoo. 

9:15 p. m. Taps. 

The Instruction Building in each of the apprentice 
seamen regiments contained five large class rooms 
an ordnance room, signal room, rigging loft, and two 
general instruction rooms, one of which was used par- 
ticularly for instruction in first aid work. All of these 
class rooms were especially fitted up for instruction 
work. The following description of the instruction 
rooms in the First Regiment will suffice for those in all 
five of the apprentice seamen regiments. 

The Rigging Loft was equipped with four 5O-ft. 
jackstays for practical instruction in tying knots, hitches 
and bends; a large number of three and four-strand 
tails for instruction in splicing; a framework with car- 
locks for dry-oar instruction during the winter months 
when real boats could not be used; a naval standard 
compass; leads and tools for practical seamanship work; 
a davit with boat falls and numerous blocks and tackles 
for the purpose of teaching the men how to hoist and 
lower boats and to belay. In addition, the walls of the 
Rigging Loft were covered with paintings and drawings 
of ground tackle; parts of forecastle with capstans, 
anchors, bitts ; markings of the cable, lead and leadline ; 
chains for leadsman, sounding machines of various 
types; different logs and life buoys; a compass with 
points and degrees ; a sketch of bearings and lights ; the 



APPRENTICE SEAMEN REGIMENTS 99 

buoyage system in U. S. waters; rules of the road; all 
types of boats under oars and sail; and the rigs of 
square-rigged vessels. The Rigging Loft work con- 
sisted of making knots, bends, and splices; the use of 
the lead, log and compass ; steering, running lines, hoist- 
ing and lowering boats, throwing heavy lines, hauling 
in hawsers, and the duties of the lookout. 

The Signal Room was used for the study of all types 
of signals used in the Navy, including day, night and 
sound signals. The walls of this room were decorated 
in colors with all signal flags, both Navy and Interna- 
tional; the ensigns of all nations; the semaphore and 
blinker system of signaling, showing how the letters of 
the alphabet are formed ; speed signals ; and a panorama 
of a battleship's bridge to give the recruit an idea of 
how the signaling is accomplished. 

The Ordnance Room had its walls covered with com- 
plete drawings of turrets, guns, mounts, magazine and 
handling rooms; various types of breech plugs, shells 
and ammunition; enlarged sketches of guns, showing 
method of construction and details of the built-up sys- 
tem ; telescopes and range-finders ; sketches of the differ- 
ent parts of a Bliss-Leavitt torpedo, shown in detail; 
naval defense mines ; different types of fuses and prim- 
ers; powder-bag charges for all calibre of guns; sil- 
houettes of various positions to be taken by the men in 
firing the rifle, and a large oil painting showing a rapid 
fire gun and crew in action. It was also equipped with 
wall boards on which were placed the disassembled parts 
of small arms; tripods for aiming drill and Colt and 
Lewis machine guns. All the drawings and sketches 
were used to illustrate lectures. The ordnance classes 
taught the men how gun crews are stationed; how to 



ioo THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

handle and use fuses, primers and all sorts of ammuni- 
tion ; a knowledge of the different types of guns, mount- 
ings, etc.; and the nomenclature of guns, rifles and 
revolvers. 

The paintings and drawings on the walls of the Gen- 
eral Instruction Room showed completely the arrange- 
ment of the compartments of a modern battleship; a 
longitudinal cross section of the U. S. S. Nevada; 
silhouettes of all other types of naval vessels; complete 
illustrations of uniforms, collar insignias, sleeve marks,, 
shoulder straps, hatgear and rating badges of officers 
and enlisted men of the Navy, Army and Marine Corps ; 
the markings of steam, air, oil, fresh and salt water 
pipes of naval ships; and tables containing regulations, 
general orders, and the rendering of various salutes 
and military honors. 

The First Aid Instruction Room had drawings upon 
its walls illustrating the methods of rendering first aid 
to the injured; large charts of the human anatomy, such 
as the skeleton with the names of the principal bones in 
the body; a chart illustrating blood circulation; draw- 
ings showing how to apply the tourniquet to arrest 
hemorrhage in various parts of the body; drawings il- 
lustrating the use of bandages for shell and shot 
wounds; the methods of conveying wounded men; re- 
suscitation of the apparently drowned; the rescue of 
helpless men from the water, showing method of 
breaking various death grips ; and charts showing vari- 
ous poisonings and the treatments therefor. 

The textbooks used for instruction purposes in- 
cluded the "Blue jackets' Manual," the "Deck and Boat 
Book," the "Recruits' Handy Book," "Modern Sea- 
manship," and the "American Ordnance Book." 



APPRENTICE SEAMEN REGIMENTS 101 

The men in the apprentice seamen regiments re- 
ceived particular instruction in the handling and care 
of small arms, and were put through the regular Navy 
course of rifle shooting at the rifle range. 

A weekly report was sent to the Drill Officer showing 
the number of hours devoted in each company to the 
following subjects : Boats, marlinspike seamanship, first 
aid, artillery, company drill, general drill, signals, range, 
physical drill, battalion formation, heavy marching or- 
der, and position, aiming and gallery. 

The number of hours devoted to instruction in the 
different subjects during the three-months course, as 
shown by the records of the First Regiment, was as fol- 
lows: Company drill, 165 hours; Battalion drill, 20 
hours ; First aid, 9 hours ; Loading and firing, 9 hours ; 
Rifle Range, 9 hours; Heavy marching order, 6 hours; 
Ordnance, 13 hours; Boats, 30 hours; Marlinspike sea- 
manship, 50 hours; Discipline and duty and ship rou- 
tine, 34 hours; Signals, 34 hours; Bag inspection, 20 
hours; Hammock inspection, 20 hours; Physical drill, 
39 hours. 

Mast was held every morning at 1 1 130 o'clock before 
the Commanding Officer of each regiment. All men 
were allowed to present their requests for special leave, 
change in rating, transfer to various schools, etc. This 
gave every man an opportunity for fair treatment. 

Visitors were allowed in the apprentice seamen regi- 
ments on Wednesday afternoons and on Sundays. The 
men in training were given twelve hours of liberty each 
week-end. After the review each Wednesday after- 
noon the men were allowed the liberty of the camp. 

The First Regiment was organized as a unit for the 
training of apprentice seamen in May, 1917, and during 



102 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

the spring and summer of that year was located in tents, 
forming part of Camp Paul Jones. Exclusive of the 
Main Station Regiment, which later became the Fourth 
Regiment, this was the first regiment established fol- 
lowing the declaration of war. During the war period 
it trained approximately 17,000 men. The regimental 
commander was Lieutenant (j. g.) A. O. Schory. His 
adjutant was Ensign Rudolph Winzer. In the late 
summer of 1918 Lieutenant (j. g.) Burmain A. Grim- 
ball, Ensign Cedric O. Eaton, Ensign David R. Knape 
and Ensign V. F. Wright were also attached to the 
First Regiment. 

The Second Regiment, organized in May, 1917, and 
located in Camp Paul Jones, was at first a firemen regi- 
ment, but, as these men were transferred to sea and 
apprentice seamen came in, its character changed. 
From the early summer of 1917 to the close of the war 
its activity had to do with the training of apprentice 
seamen. Approximately 16,000 men passed through 
this regiment. Lieutenant H. Vanderwerp, U. S. N., 
R. F., was its first regimental commander. In Septem- 
ber, 1917, Ensign R. T. Whitney, U. S. N., R. F., re- 
lieved Lieutenant Vanderwerp, and a couple of months 
later Lieutenant (j. g.) J. Reid, U. S. N., at that time a 
gunner, became regimental commander. Just before 
the armistice was signed the Battalion Commanders 
were Ensign S. P. Swynenburg and Ensign J. C. Wil- 
kins. 

The Third Regiment, organized at the same time as 
the First and Second Regiments, and located with them 
in Camp Paul Jones until all three moved into Camp 
Dewey in the fall of 1917, also trained in the neighbor- 
hood of 16,000 men. Its first regimental commander 



APPRENTICE SEAMEN REGIMENTS 103 

was Lieutenant Fisher, of the National Naval Volun- 
teers. In July, 1917, Lieutenant Fisher was succeeded 
by Ensign Halpine, with Ensign Eschom U. S. N., R. F., 
as his adjutant. While in command of the Third Regi- 
ment, Ensign Halpine was advanced in rank to lieuten- 
ant, junior grade. In September, 1917, Lieutenant 
Halpine and Ensign Eschom were detached, and Ensign 
Peck assumed command, with Ensign Walter P. Hanson 
as his Adjutant. On November 15, Ensign W. P. Jost, 
National Naval Volunteers, assumed command. Early 
in January, 1918, Ensign Jost was detached from the 
regiment to take charge of the Detail Office in the Ad- 
ministration Building, and Gunner W. J. Roseman suc- 
ceeded Ensign Jost. In May, 1918, Gunner Roseman 
was advanced to the ranking of ensign, and a few 
months later was made a lieutenant junior grade. 
Boatswain W. J. Mielka was Adjutant. Lieutenant 
(j* ") James C. Humphrey was attached in the sum- 
mer of 1918. 

The Fourth Regiment became one of the apprentice 
seamen regiments of Camp Perry in October, 1917. 
This regiment was known as the Main Station Regi- 
ment or Main Brigade during the first several months 
of the war. The Fourth Regiment trained approxi- 
mately 18,000 men. Lieutenant (j. g.) L. J. Sutton 
was Regimental Commander, Ensign F. G. Saunders, 
Regimental Sub-Commander, and Gunner J. A. Kruz- 
burg, Regimental Adjutant. 

The Fifth Regiment was organized in November, 
1917, with Gunner Walter McGuire, U. S. N., R. F., as 
Regimental Commander. On January 10, 1918, Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) Laurie C. Parfitt, U. S. N., relieved Gun- 
ner McGuire as Regimental Commander. Lieutenant 



io 4 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

(j. g.) Leslie K. Orr was Regimental Adjutant, and 
Ensign Arthur A. Sayre and Ensign O. Y. Shute were 
Battalion Commanders. The average daily comple- 
ment of this regiment by months, from November 1917 
to November 1918, was as follows: November, 428; 
December, 1095; January, 1468; February, 1420; 
March, 1345; April, 960; May, 1241; June, 1904; July, 
1925; August, 2118; September, 1500; October, 1490. 

OUTGOING DETENTION 

"Shoving off" from Great Lakes to man the fighting 
ships was a procedure which held more than ordinary 
interest to the average recruit; the very air of the Out- 
going Detention camp was charged with an indescrib- 
able something that was not to be found elsewhere. To 
be transferred to this camp meant that the young man- 
of-warsman would soon find himself aboard ship, the 
first big step of his career as a sea fighter accomplished. 

Outgoing Detention was in many respects the emo- 
tional center of Great Lakes. Mothers, fathers, sis- 
ters, sweethearts, wives were allowed in this camp every 
day of the week from morning until 4:30 o'clock in the 
afternoon, which gave them ample opportunity to visit 
the sailors before their departure. 

Every man who "shoved off" from Great Lakes had 
first to pass through Outgoing Detention. They were 
sent to this camp singly or in groups, and were required 
to stay there for a period sufficient to allow complete 
medical observation and isolation. 

"Jack" was ushered into Outgoing Detention with his 
sea bag and hammock, and a station duplicate card 
verifying his name, rating, organization, etc. He was 
thoroughly examined by the medical staff, and, if the 



APPRENTICE SEAMEN REGIMENTS 105 

slightest defect was discovered, he was returned to his 
regiment as unfit. If in perfect physical and mental 
condition, he was assigned to a company, and his sea 
bag and hammock were inspected. In the event that 
he lacked any of the various articles that make up a 
complete sea bag, he was at once outfitted with them, 
and he had to see to it that every piece of his wearing 
apparel was properly stenciled. Infantry and artillery 
drill; the marking and re-marking of clothing, with lib- 
eral time given for scrubbing ; medical inspections every 
day ; and bidding good-by to relatives and sweethearts 
sometimes a different one every day constituted the 
main program while in Outgoing Detention. 

After the men had been given what was considered 
a sufficient period of isolation, they were written up on 
a draft. The number of men in these drafts ranged 
anywhere from one to one thousand. The moment a 
man was written up on a draft the Transfer Depart- 
ment of the Detail Office got busy and cheeked up his 
account, and health and service records. The number 
of drafts "shoved off" during 1918 was 2495, made up 
of 71,440 men, an average of about thirty-three men 
to a draft. The majority of the seamen trained at 
Great Lakes were sent to the naval operating base at 
Hampton Roads. The men for general detail were 
sent to Philadelphia. During one of the exceptionally 
busy periods in May, 1918, a request was received for 
1700 men for immediate service aboard ship, 1200 of 
whom were to be second class seamen. Within twelve 
hours after the order was received the 1,700 men were 
on their way east. 

During 1917 and the first six months of 1918, Out 1 - 
going Detention known as the Tenth Regiment, was 



io6 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

located in Camp Ross, which was hardly adequate for 
the purpose, as it consisted of only one regimental unit. 
Early in the spring of 1918, however, construction was 
commenced on three Outgoing Detention units to be 
known as Camp Luce, and, when the first two of these 
units were completed, Camp Ross became an additional 
Incoming Detention Unit. 

The first of the Outgoing Detention units to be com- 
pleted in Camp Luce was known as the Sixteenth Regi- 
ment. It was ready for occupancy the latter part of 
July, 1918, when five hundred men were moved into 
it from Camp Ross. During the two months and a 
half that this regiment was in operation before the 
armistice was signed, more than 14,000 men were passed 
through it into the Seventeenth Regiment, which was 
the final Outgoing Detention unit. 

The length of time spent by the men in the Sixteenth 
Regiment varied according to the demands made upon 
Great Lakes by the Receiving Ships on the eastern sea- 
board. Some men spent as much as a month's time in 
the regiment, while others had as short a stay as four 
days. Week-end liberty was granted up to the time the 
men were written on a draft. 

The Regimental Commander was Gunner Claude 
Miller, U. S. N., who had been one of Ensign P. B. 
Riley's assistants when the latter was Regimental Com- 
mander of Camp Ross. 

The actual "Good-by, Jack" unit of Outgoing Deten- 
tion was the Seventeenth Regiment, established on Au- 
gust 14, 1918. This unit was absolutely self-contained, 
having its own sick bay, dental office, laundry, ships' 
store, armory, galley, post office, barber shop, etc., which 
made it unnecessary for any of the men to leave it for 



APPRENTICE SEAMEN REGIMENTS 107 

any purpose whatsoever. A spur of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railroad was run into this camp so that 
the men could be entrained without having to march 
any distance. No liberty was granted to the men after 
they were received in the Seventeenth Regiment, but 
they were allowed to see visitors every day. 

The Seventeenth Regiment was organized into thirty- 
four companies, which included the regimental band of 
eighty pieces, two permanent guard companies, and a 
company made up of the operating force. 

During the three months this Outgoing Detention unit 
was in operation before the signing of the armistice it 
received and transferred approximately 27,000 men to 
general service. This was an average of three hundred 
men per day, and a considerable accomplishment 
considering that during much of this time a state of 
quarantine existed, due to the influenza epidemic which 
reduced transfers to a minimum. 

The first Regimental Commander of the Seventeenth 
Regiment was Lieutenant (j. g.) M. T. Wilkerson, 
U. S. N., who was transferred to the Officer Material 
School a few weeks later to act as an instructor. Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) J. G. McFarland, who was in charge of 
the Gunners' Mates School until October I, 1918, suc- 
ceeded Lieutenant Wilkerson. The regimental drill 
officer was Ensign F. C. Scheid, U. S. N. 

Ensign P. B. Riley, U. S. N., who was officer in 
charge of Camp Ross when that camp was the Out- 
going Detention unit, became commanding officer of 
Camp Luce. His adjutant was Ensign W. A. Krueck, 
U. S. N. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 

PRECEDING chapters tell of the astounding 
growth of Great Lakes as a whole the result of 
super-organization, super-training under condi- 
tions frequently disheartening, and almost superhuman 
tenacity of purpose. 

When war was declared and word was passed to 
Great Lakes to "Go !" Great Lakes fairly sprinted. An 
aggressive spirit of "Go!" and "Grow!" backed by a 
remarkable ingenuity in the improvising of ways and 
means of overcoming obstacles, permeated the entire 
Station. And nowhere was this more strongly evinced 
than in the special schools organized to turn out Com- 
pany Commanders, Coxswains, Quartermasters, Gun- 
ners' Mates, Armed Guards to man the merchant ma- 
rine, Radio Operators, Artificers, Signalmen, Hospital 
Corpsmen ; Aviation Quartermasters, Machinists' Mates 
and Armorers; Ensigns for the Naval Reserve Force, 
and Aviation Officers. 

Intensive courses of study were given in all these 
schools, the courses varying according to the nature of 
the work, and, in some cases, to the aptitude of the 
students. 

In each school the underlying policy was to teach the 
"why" as well as the "how." 

There is no question but that these schools gave the 
"gob" at Great Lakes a wonderful chance for rapid 

108 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 109 

advancement. The opportunity fairly stared him in the 
face from the moment he arrived on the Station, and 
no sooner was he out of Incoming Detention than he 
became eligible to compete for and obtain admittance 
to any one of the special schools. 

The only qualification the recruit required to find the 
opportunity for advancement handed out to him on a 
silver platter was a willingness and an ability to learn 
a little more quickly than the majority of his shipmates. 

But it must not be supposed from all this that the 
men at Great Lakes ran up against anything easy. In 
fact the situation was just the opposite. The men who 
got through successfully had to work with a sincerity, 
a steadfastness of purpose, and a bulldog tenacity that 
would fill any university faculty in the country with 
envy. They were able to succeed only because their 
instructors were particularly enthusiastic and capable; 
because the very nature of the work requiring physi- 
cal as well as mental exercise made for clear-headed- 
ness, and because the rule at Great Lakes was "early to 
bed and early to rise." 

The ordinary reward was advancement to a petty of- 
ficer rating which ordinarily would have required sev- 
eral years of service on board ship. But this was not 
all. For the young man who entered Great Lakes, not 
with the idea of seeking special preferment, but with 
an itch to give the best he had in him where most 
needed, obtained an opportunity, after becoming a petty 
officer and demonstrating exceptional ability as such, 
to study and obtain a commission as an ensign. 

Previous to the declaration of war there were only 
two special schools in existence at Great Lakes the 
Signal and Radio School, and the Hospital Corps 



no THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Training School. The first school established because 
of the war emergency was the Instruction Camp for 
Company Commanders. 

All the special schools, with the exception of the Of- 
ficer Material School, were formed into regiments. 
The Hospital Corps Training School and the Yeoman 
School comprised the Sixth Regiment; the Radio 
School, the Seventh Regiment; the Armed Guard, Gun- 
ners' Mates, Coxswain, Quartermaster, and Signal 
schools, the Eleventh Regiment; and the Aviation 
schools, the Fifteenth Regiment. 

THE INSTRUCTION CAMP FOR COMPANY 
COMMANDERS 

This school, established soon after the declaration of 
war because competent petty officers were scarce and 
invaluable, was under the direct command of Lieuten- 
ant Ralph M. Jaeger, who later became assistant to the 
Station's Executive Officer. His assistant instructors 
were Gunner "Jack" Kennedy one-time champion 
boxer of the Atlantic Fleet and Boatswain M. T. 
Wilkerson, both of whom were later advanced to com- 
missioned officer ranks in the regular Navy. 

The course of instruction in this school, the purpose 
of which was to fit men to act as Company Commanders 
for the training of the recruits who were passing 
through Great Lakes, did not cover any set period of 
weeks or months. As soon as a student in this school 
proved that he had absorbed the instruction, and, in 
turn, had become capable of giving instruction, he was 
placed in charge of a company of apprentice seamen. 
The subjects he had to master and then teach to the re- 
cruits were: Infantry drill; physical drill with and 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS in 

without arms ; nomenclature of the rifle, automatic pis- 
tol, and field piece ; the manual of guard duty ; the bugle 
calls; the handling of boats under oars and sail; mar- 
linspike seamanship; deck seamanship; a thorough 
working knowledge of the compass, log and lead; the 
sending and receiving of signals; range practice with 
the rifle and the automatic pistol; position and aiming 
drills; the operation of a 3-inch field piece, and first aid. 
The Instruction camp for Company Commanders was 
discontinued early in 1918, as a sufficient number of 
men had been trained for this work. During the period 
of its activity, however, it turned out several hundred 
competent Company Commanders, more than a hundred 
of whom qualified later for commissions as ensigns. 

THE GUNNERS' MATES SCHOOL 

The Gunners' Mates School was organized in Au- 
gust, 1917, by direction of Captain W. A. Moffett, on 
orders from the Bureau of Navigation. Its purpose 
was to train men from the various regiments for Petty 
Officer material. In order to be eligible for this school 
a man had to be in the Seaman Branch of the Service, 
although Machinists' Mates and Firemen, third class, 
showing particular mechanical ability, were allowed to 
take the course. A Gunners' Mate on a modern war- 
ship, with its complicated gun mechanism and electrical 
installation, had to be a fairly good mechanic and show 
marked ability in a mechanical line. 

The course of instruction in this school covered a 
period of two months, and included the following sub- 
jects: First week, care and preservation of ordnance 
material, small arms, and machine guns; second week, 
guns, mounts, and breech mechanism; third week, 



ii2 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

sights, sighting, sight installation, bore sighting, and 
telescopes; fourth week, turrets and turret mounts, in- 
cluding electric apparatus used in turrets; fifth week, 
ammunition its manufacture, care and preservation, 
and stowage in magazines on board ship; sixth week, 
projectiles, weights of bursting charges, fuses, primers 
and safety precautions, hang-fires and misfires; seventh 
week, torpedoes, mines, gun cotton and other explosives 
used in the U. S. Navy; eighth week, fire control and 
review of first seven weeks. 

When the school was organized, it was practically 
impossible to obtain a sufficient supply of regulation 
Navy books such as Ship and Gun Drills, Ordnance 
and Gunnery, and other standard books. In order to 
overcome this difficulty the Ordnance Officer, Lieutenant 
John Ronan, U. S. N., collected data and compiled and 
had printed, with the approval of the Commandant and 
the Navy Department, an ordnance text book known as 
"Ordnance Instruction Book, Gunners' Mates School, 
Great Lakes Naval Training Station, 1917." Two 
thousand copies of this book were printed at the time. 
The book was later revised, and an additional 2000 
copies printed. The book was likewise adopted by the 
Navy Department for use at other naval training sta- 
tions. 

The students in the Gunners' Mates School were also 
given practical work in the assembling and disassem- 
bling of guns, mounts, small arms, machine guns, tor- 
pedoes, mines, counter mines, mine sweeping, and also 
the use of the depth charge and smoke-producing ap- 
paratus. 

During the summer months half of the period of 
instruction was on board the vessels of the Great Lakes 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 113 

Training Squadron, where target practice was carried 
out under regular service conditions. 

From the time the school was established to the sign- 
ing of the armistice more than 1800 men were gradu- 
ated and sent to the fighting ships as Gunners' Mates. 

The Gunners' Mates School was under the general 
supervision of Lieutenant John Ronan, the Ordnance 
Officer. The chief instructors were Lieutenant (j. g.) 
J. G. McFarland and Ensign Paul S. Drake. 

THE ARMED GUARD SCHOOL 

The Armed Guard School, also under the super- 
vision of Lieutenant John Ronan, was established in 
December, 1917, to train complete gun crews for the 
arming of transports and the merchant marine. 

In order to be eligible for this school a man had to 
be in the Seaman Branch of the Service and have com- 
pleted three months training on the Station. To qual- 
ify for the position of Gun Captain, Gun Pointer, or 
Sight Setter, a man had to show exceptional ability. 
The other stations, such as shell man, powder man, and 
loaders, required men of good build and strength. 

The course of instruction covered a period of one 
month and included the following subjects : First week, 
care and preservation of ordnance material, small arms 
and machine guns; nomenclature, assembling and dis- 
assembling; target practice with small arms and ma- 
chine guns; second week, guns and gun construction; 
breech mechanism and gun mounts; firing mechanism, 
locks and attachments; recoil system; methods of over- 
hauling and preparing battery for firing; training and 
elevating gears; loading drill, dotters, sub-caliber at- 
tachments, check telescope drills, sights and sight set- 



n 4 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

ting; third week, ammunition, its manufacture, care 
and preservation; inspection and stowage of ammuni- 
tion on board ship; fuses and primers; projectiles; 
depth charge and smoke producing apparatus; how to 
set combination shrapnel fuse; gun-cotton and other 
explosives used in the U. S. Navy; fourth week, fire 
control ; use of range finder and spotting glasses ; actual 
target practice with three-pounder and three-inch bat- 
tery from gun shed on shore of Lake Michigan; 
wrinkles of anti-submarine warfare. 

In addition to the above, each man was required to 
thoroughly familiarize himself with the silhouette out- 
lines and descriptions of German submarines of various 
types. This included submarines on the surface, partly 
submerged, awash, and fully submerged with the peri- 
scope showing, particular stress being given to detecting 
the wake of the submarine by day and by night. It was 
also required that each man be familiar with and able 
to detect the wake of a torpedo traveling through the 
water. 

Men were qualified in this course according to their 
ability as gun captains, gun pointers, and other gun sta- 
tions. An entry was made in their enlistment records, 
before they left Great Lakes showing their qualifications. 
Men with qualifications as gun captains, gun pointers, 
and sight setters, were issued gunnery records, which 
entitled them to extra pay in the rating they were given. 

Actual target practice, both by day and by night, 
was engaged in by all the men who went through the 
course. The guns were located in a gun shed on the 
shore of Lake Michigan, and targets representing sub- 
marines were placed out in the lake and shot at. 

After completing the course of instruction in this 




Bluejacket Signalmen on the Bridge of a Regimental Headquarters' Building 

Practice in the " Dry Land Boats " 

" Deck Seamanship " Practice 




Gunners' Mates Practising Loading 
Ready for Cutter Practice Cutter Drill 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 115 

school, the men were grouped in gun crews of eight 
each and sent to the Armed Guard bases along the 
eastern seaboard. From these points they were trans- 
ferred to vessels of the fleet for further intensive train- 
ing before being assigned to Armed Guard duty. 

The gun crews trained at Great Lakes proved their 
ability in many instances in actual combat with German 
submarines. More than 1,600 men were graduated 
from the school during the war period. 

The chief instructors in the Armed Guard School 
were Gunner Charles Avery, and Gunner J. L. Hiatt. 

THE COXSWAIN SCHOOL 

The Coxswain School was organized in August, 1917, 
with Ensign George Fagan as Officer in Charge, and 
Boatswain F. H. Quandt, later a lieutenant junior 
grade, as Chief Instructor. 

The course of study covered two months, and in- 
cluded such subjects as: The handling of small boats 
under all conditions and circumstances; tactical exer- 
cises in small boats ; beaching or landing through a surf ; 
the duties of a Coxswain as given in the Boat Book ; the 
cleanliness of boats; the steering effect of the propeller; 
the carrying out of anchors; a knowledge of storm sig- 
nals, distress signals, and signals for pilot ; the lowering 
and hoisting of boats under various conditions of 
weather ; a practical knowledge of deck seamanship, in- 
cluding a knowledge of mooring ship; the sending and 
receiving of wig-wag and semaphore signals; marlin- 
spike seamanship; and complete instruction in infantry 
and artillery drill. 

The school was divided into three companies. The 
beginners were placed in Company C for a period of 



n6 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

three weeks, after which the best of them were ad- 
vanced to Company B, and finally to Company A. Dur- 
ing the summer months the classes were conducted in 
the open air. The equipment used for instruction con- 
sisted of the cutters and various other small boats in 
the Great Lakes' harbor, and special kinds of tackle and 
other equipment located in the school classrooms and in 
the rigging lofts. In the spring of 1918 a three-weeks' 
cruise on the training ships of the Great Lakes' Squad- 
ron was added to the two-months' course of study on 
shore and in small boats. 

The Coxswain School graduated 1275 men and trans- 
ferred them to sea. 

THE QUARTERMASTERS' SCHOOL 
The Quartermasters' School was established in Au- 
gust, 1917, to take picked men from the apprentice sea- 
men companies and give them advanced instruction in 
the duties of a quartermaster on board ship. Lieuten- 
ant (j. g.) F. M. Kelley was in charge of the school the 
greater part of its existence. 

To gain entrance to this school a man had to have a 
fundamental knowledge of all the signals used in the 
Navy, be able to box the compass, and to know the lead 
line. Preference was given to high school graduates. 

The period of the course was eight weeks, and the 
students received instruction in the following subjects: 
The general duties of quartermasters; the log and the 
entries therein; the work of a lookout; the hailing of 
boats at night ; a general knowledge of the duties of the 
officer of the deck; weather and storms; storm signals; 
flags, signals and ceremonies; chronometers and the 
duties of a quartermaster in connection therewith; the 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 117 

barometer ; use of the drift lead and sounding machines ; 
and how to conn and instruct seamen at the wheel. 

During the summer months the men in this school 
were all given three weeks of instruction on board the 
Great Lakes Training Squadron. The graduates were 
850 in number. 

THE SIGNAL SCHOOL 

This school was established three months before the 
declaration of war as the Signal and Radio School. On 
May i, 1917, however, a separation took place, and the 
radio branch became a distinct organization. 

With the declaration of war the number of signalmen 
in training jumped from forty to two hundred. As no 
quarters were available in barracks at that time, the 
school was located in tents at one corner of the main 
drill field. Classes were held in the open. Blinker 
tubes were rigged on the drill field for use both day and 
night. The mast on the north side of the drill field was 
used for flag hoist drill. 

On October i, 1917, the school was moved into bar- 
racks in the Seventh Regiment. One end of each bar- 
racks was used as a classroom, and blinkers and buzzers 
were rigged in each. Charts showing all code and spe- 
cial meaning flags were made and used in classwork. 
The course at that time extended over a period of three 
months, and covered all the different methods of signal- 
ing used in the Navy. 

Early in 1918 the Signal School was transferred back 
on to the Main Station, and the course was changed to 
eight weeks, to conform with the orders of the Bureau 
of Navigation. 

To qualify for duty the men of this school had to be 



n8 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

able to receive five words of blinker and ten words of 
semaphore a minute. Classes were held both during 
the day and at night, in blinker, semaphore and flag sig- 
naling. More than 1000 signalmen were turned out 
by this school during the war period. 

Lieutenant (j. g.) A. G. Somers was the first head 
of the Signal School. At that time he was a Chief 
Quartermaster. Early in 1918 Lieutenant Somers was 
relieved by J. R. Harrison, C. Q. M. 

THE YEOMAN SCHOOL 

The Yeoman School was organized in August, 1917, 
in order to provide the service in general with men fa- 
miliar with the duties and routine of a Yeoman. 

When this school was started, there were no quar- 
ters or equipment available, so the men who were stand- 
ing by to receive Yeoman training set to work to build 
their own school. They erected a row of tents just 
south of the Administration Building, and equipped 
these tents with home-made desks and benches. The 
first class of Yeomen, 109 in number, was graduated 
from these tents on October 10, 1917. 

From that time on the Yeoman School grew steadily, 
graduating more than lOoo competent Yeomen. 

The course of instruction in the Yeoman School con- 
sisted of practical work in all branches of clerical duty 
ashore and afloat. The period of the course was four 
months, consisting of twenty-four days instruction in 
each of the five classes, namely the Commanding Class, 
Executive and Navigation Class, Ordnance and Engi- 
neering Class, the G. S. K. Class, and the Pay Class. 

In the Executive and Navigation Class the men were 
thoroughly instructed in the duties of an Officers' yeo- 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS .119 

man, which compares to a private secretary in civil life, 
and studied Navy Regulations, Courts and Procedure, 
and General Instructions. Enough navigation was 
taught to make the men familiar with all terms and 
forms with which they were liable to come in contact, 
and the vast amount of clerical work incident to keeping 
the records of men aboard ship was gone over. . . 

The Pay Class familiarized the men with pay rolls, 
vouchers and the many details incident to keeping the 
books of the Pay Department in good order. Every 
man in this class had to open and close sixty-two ac- 
counts. In this class the men were taught enough en- 
gineering to make them familiar with engineering f orms 
and terms. t 

In the G. S. K. class (general storekeeping) the men 
had to learn how to check all stores coming aboard,, keep 
a record of disbursements, make inventories, etc. . , 

The Ordnance and Engineering Class familiarized the 
men with the forms and terms used in these departments 
of a ship's activities. 

The Yeoman School at Great Lakes covered a little 
more detail than like schools operated at other Naval 
Training Stations in that the Great Lakes' School fa- 
miliarized its students with the duties of Navigation and 
Engineering Yeomen. t 

Ensign Robert H. Lenson, who, as a Chief Yeoman, 
organized the school, was its head during the war period. 

HOSPITAL CORPS TRAINING SCHOOL 

Surgeon John B. Kaufman, now a Commander, ar- 
rived at Great Lakes to establish the Hospital Corps 
Training School in January, 1917. The school was 
opened a month before war was declared, with a class 



of twenty hospital apprentices. In April, 1917, about 
three hundred hospital apprentices were assigned to the 
school, and from that time on the number of those un- 
dergoing instruction steadily increased. On August 2, 
1918, the school had a total of 2053 apprentices under 
instruction. By this time the school required a regi- 
mental unit for its accommodation, and one of the huge 
drill halls in Camp Perry was being used for instruc- 
tion purposes. Bacteriological and chemical laborator- 
ies., were equipped for the instruction of forty men at a 
time in the identification of different infections, blood 
cdts, and urinalysis. A pharmaceutical laboratory, 
said to be the largest of its kind in the country, allowed 
144 men at a time to be instructed in the different pro- 
cedures in practical pharmacy. 

The course of instruction in this school covered a 
period of six months. The method of teaching was a 
system of lectures alternating with practical instruc- 
tion and demonstration, with examinations monthly. 

The subjects taught included: Hygiene and Sanita- 
tion; Anatomy and Physiology; Pharmacy; Chemistry 
and Bacteriology ; Materia Medica ; First Aid and Minor 
Surgery; Nursing. 

The course in hygiene and sanitation included a series 
of lectures which began with descriptions from a hy- 
gienic and sanitary standpoint, of water and air, and 
gradually advanced until they expounded the central 
principles governing the hygienic and sanitary condi- 
tions under which the men of the Navy live, aboard ship 
and in the field. Under this subject necessarily came 
the study of foods and mess management, so the chem- 
ical analysis of foods was taught in this course. 

The course in Anatomy and Physiology embraced lee- 



. THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 121 

tures supplemented by demonstrations. This course, 
with the exception of work in the anatomical dissecting 
room and physiological laboratory, approached that of 
the first year in a medical college. 

The courses of Pharmacy and Mater ia Medica were, 
perhaps, taught more fully than any of the others, for 
it was only at the school that an opportunity for obtain- 
ing a knowledge of these subjects was afforded the men. 
It was presumed that the men enlisting as hospital ap- 
prentices had had no previous instruction in these sub- 
jects, and the courses were so outlined as to begin with 
fundamental principles and slowly add thereto until, 
within the period of six months, the complete courses 
had been covered. The men were taught to make tinc- 
tures, spirits, waters, emulsions, and to compound pre- 
scriptions. Specimens of all the articles in the pharma- 
copoeia were displayed in study cases for the instruc- 
tion of the men, and lectures of a general nature de- 
scribed their uses. 

In First Aid and Minor Surgery the men also began 
with first principles, followed by instruction that 
qualified them to meet practically all emergencies. The 
course embraced thorough instruction in the application 
of bandages, splints, tourniquets, and the technique of 
minor operations. In so far as possible the students 
were given practical exercises. During sham battles a 
certain percentage of the participants were instructed to 
fall wounded. The hospital apprentices followed the 
battle line, inquired of the fallen men the location of 
their supposed wounds, and then applied the bandages 
and splints in a thoroughly professional manner. 

The subject of chemistry was taught in an elementary 
way, only such things being given as were vitally neces- 



122 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

sary. In the bacteriological laboratory the students 
were taught how to use and care for the microscope, 
and make the many kinds of tests required for the identi- 
fication of infections, blood cells, urinalysis, etc. 

Practical experience in nursing was obtained by being 
detailed to duty in the hospital and regimental sick bays 
at Great Lakes, and at other naval training stations 
throughout the country. 

The head instructors of the different branches were: 
Lieutenants W. E. Thomson, J. G. Davis, A. H. Ben- 
hard, C. P. Dean and G. L. Grain, and Pharmacists L. 
E. Bote, C. H. Deane and L. R. Mason. 

The school graduated 2853 hospital apprentices, first 
class, during the war period. These graduates were 
sent to the fighting ships and to naval bases after a pe- 
riod of nursing in naval hospitals. Many performed 
admirable service on the transports which brought the 
wounded soldiers back from France. 

The fight against the influenza epidemic at Great 
Lakes in the autumn of 1918 provided a graphic page in 
the history of the school. For more than a month the 
hospital corpsmen in training worked day and night to 
combat the epidemic and stood up gamely under the 
strain. 

THE RADIO SCHOOL 

When the need for radio operators to take over the 
various radio stations in the Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh 
Naval Districts became apparent, steps were taken to 
enroll in the Naval Reserve Force such men as were 
available. As the warships of the Great Lakes' Train- 
ing Squadron were placed in commission, and demands 
began to be made for radio men for the merchant ma- 
rine, it became apparent that the radio men available 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 123 

would not, in any measure, fill the demand. Accord- 
ingly, a recruiting campaign was carried on, whereby 
a great number of men were enrolled for instruction in 
radio work. These men reported to Great Lakes and 
were placed under the instruction of the radio opera- 
tors at the Great Lakes' radio station. But as the num- 
ber of radio apprentices increased, the error of this ar- 
rangement became apparent, and early in May a radio 
school was organized under the direction of Ensign D. 
A. Nichols, of the Naval Reserve Force. 

During the summer of 1917 the Radio School grew 
in size until it had four hundred men under instruction, 
the radio apprentices enlisting in the Naval Reserve 
Force being under the instruction of Ensign Nichols, 
and those enlisting in the regular service receiving in- 
struction from Radio Gunner W. A. Sullivan. 

In November, 1917, the school was moved into a por- 
tion of one of the new regimental units in Camp Perry, 
Ensign Nichols was detached and sent to Europe, Radio 
Gunner Sullivan assuming charge. By January, 1918, 
the number of men receiving radio instruction had grown 
so large that it was necessary to devote the entire regi- 
mental unit to its purposes, and plans were formulated 
for partitioning one of the huge drill halls into code in- 
struction rooms. The entire plan of the school was re- 
organized in February, 1918, when Ensign M. B. West 
assumed charge, on a basis that allowed each man. to 
advance in his work, not as a member of a class, but as 
his individual progress warranted. By the time this 
reorganization was completed the school had a capacity 
for simultaneously instructing 2580 men. Boatswain 
H. R. Gibson was Regimental Commander. 

The majority of the men available for instruction in 



i2 4 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

the school at this time had had no previous experience 
in radio work, so the requirements for entrance were 
simply that the applicant show, by reason of education 
or experience along similar lines, that he was good 
material for radio work. 

Later, however, after considerable preliminary study, 
it was decided to adopt a psychiatric examination for all 
the men entering the Radio School. This psychiatric 
examination was formulated from data secured by ex- 
amining, first, a number of men who had completed the 
course with satisfactory results; second, a number of 
men who were progressing well in the school, and third, 
a large number of men who had failed to make satisfac- 
tory progress. The result of this psychiatric examina- 
tion was such that less than six percent of the men who 
completed the radio course at Great Lakes failed in the 
more advanced course given them at Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

The course of training consisted of instruction in the 
Continental-Morse code, the students having to acquire 
a speed of approximately twenty words a minute; and 
instruction in the principles of electricity and magnetism, 
including motors, generators, and the principal parts of 
the various pieces of apparatus used in radio work and 
in connection with it. 

The length of the course of instruction was inde- 
terminate, being governed solely by the individual prog- 
ress made by each man. As soon as a man failed to 
make satisfactory progress, he was examined psychi- 
atrically, and then given another opportunity or trans- 
ferred, according to the results. 

No advancement in rating was given at Great Lakes, 
except in the cases of men assigned to duty as instruc- 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 125 

tors. These men were given such ratings as their as- 
signment and ability made desirable. 

The final examinations consisted of both the press 
and code groups, sent at varying speeds in order to de- 
termine the actual operating ability of the individual. 
The greater number of the 4259 men graduated were 
transferred to Harvard University for further study, 
after which they were assigned to the fighting ships, 
transports and merchant marine. 

THE AVIATION SCHOOLS 

The Aviation Regiment at Great Lakes, consisting, 
during the final months of the war, of four schools hav- 
ing a total enrollment of nearly 5000 men, had its be- 
ginning in June, 1917, in two tents at the foot of the 
bluff overlooking Lake Michigan. 

The fight to bring Aviation to Great Lakes was be- 
gun by Captain Moffett at the outbreak of the war. 
The Navy Department was not easily convinced. After 
two months Captain Moffett was authorized to enlist a 
few men for aviation and do what he could without an 
appropriation of money or equipment. 

Lee Hammond, an experienced aviator, was enrolled 
in the Naval Reserve Force as a lieutenant, junior grade, 
and Great Lakes' aviation unit was started as a flight 
school with two officers, ten enlisted men, and no equip- 
ment. The Great Lakes' Aeronautical Society was 
formed by prospective students, and money was donated 
to purchase machines and equipment. The first ma- 
chine, an antiquated Curtiss flying-boat, was received 
early in July, 1917. 

Gradually, this little school accumulated seven ma- 
chines of various types and worth, the number of men 



126 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

in the unit was increased, and training flights became 
a daily occurrence. Of the fifteen students who got 
their first flight training in this unpromising school not 
one failed to secure a commission. 

In the autumn of 1917, the Navy Department author- 
ized the establishment at Great Lakes of a school for 
Machinists' Mates (aviation) and preparations were 
made to house this school in Camp Perry, with one of 
the drill halls as an instruction building. The move to 
Camp Perry was made early in December, and for a few 
weeks the eighty men then composing the aviation unit 
devoted their time to organization work. Men who 
were anxious to get into aviation work were trans- 
ferred from the seaman regiments and enrolled from 
civil life, until the number so obtained reached the 2000 
mark. In March, 1918, the School for Machinists' 
Mates became a reality. At about the same time Cap- 
tain Moffett went to Washington and obtained an ap- 
propriation of more than $600,000 for a great aviation 
camp. Meanwhile, without authorization and with 
what material could be borrowed or improvised, a school 
for aviation quartermasters was created. And al- 
though this school continued to operate without author- 
ization until August i, 1918, it was the Navy's principal 
source of quartermaster material (aviation) during all 
that time. 

The aviation quarters in Camp Perry were poorly 
adapted to the necessities of aviation, but the training 
of Machinists' Mates and Quartermasters continued un- 
der difficulties until the middle of July, 1918, when the 
schools were moved into the great, especially designed 
regimental unit constructed to the north of the Main 
Station for Aviation purposes. A week after the Avia- 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 127 

tion Unit was installed in its new quarters the School 
for Aviation Armorers was started. 

The flight school from which the Aviation Unit orig- 
inally developed was not revived in 1918, but the old 
quarters at the foot of the bluff that looks out over Lake 
Michigan became a Naval Air Station during the sum- 
mer months of 1918. In the hangars were kept three 
of the latest types of seaplanes and flying boats, cared 
for by a crew of graduate Machinists' Mates and Quar- 
termasters. Lieutenant Hammond and other officers 
of his command made flights every day for experimental 
purposes. An aerial mail service was also inaugurated 
between Great Lakes and Chicago. 

Because of the pressing need of aviation officers for 
ground service a fourth school was added to the Avia- 
tion Unit about the first of September, 1918, namely 
the Aviation Officers' Ground School. 

Thus, from the two officers and ten men of July I, 
1917, the Aviation Unit grew until it consisted of nearly 
5000 men, including 65 officers, 130 chief petty officers, 
and 450 instructors. In the offices alone one hundred 
and twenty-five men were required to handle the oper- 
ating detail. During the final few months of the war 
the Machinists' Mates School had 1440 men under con- 
tinuous instruction; the Quartermasters' School, 480 
men ; the Armorers' School, 600 men ; the Aviation Of- 
ficers' Ground School, an average of 80 men. The lat- 
ter were all men of mature age, usually thirty years or 
over, and the purpose of their training was to fit them 
for the various executive positions at Naval Air Sta- 
tions, both in the United States and in Europe. 

Up to the latter part of March, 1918, the Aviation 
Unit had not a single motor on the block, nor a single 



128 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

piece of machine shop equipment. When the armistice 
was signed, the equipment of the unit consisted of ninety 
Curtiss, forty-eight Liberty, seventeen Hispane-Suiza, 
fourteen Sturtevant, and a small number of Gnome, 
Hall-Scott, Renault, Greene, Wisconsin, Thomas, and 
Duesenburg motors; two Curtiss HS-i boats, one Cur- 
tiss H-2 boat, two Curtiss F boats, two Curtiss N-9 
boats, and a Sturtevant boat. The Armorers' School 
possessed sixteen Lewis standard machine guns, sixteen 
Lewis aerial machine guns, twenty-three Marlin air- 
craft machine guns, three Davis non-recoil 3-pound 
guns, and one Davis non-recoil aero machine gun, to- 
gether with a large amount of minor equipment. The 
great machine shop was equipped with sixty-two milling 
machines, sixty-three lathes, thirty-three drill presses, 
thirty-two shapers, seven power saws, seven universal 
grinders, one woodworking machine, one automatic 
knife grinder, one turret screw machine, one planer, and 
a vast quantity of smaller machinery. 

The purpose of the School for Aviation Quartermas- 
ters was to turn out men qualified to keep in repair the 
wings, wing structures, and pontoons of the Navy's fleet 
of aerial ships. To graduate, these men had to become 
proficient in the work of patching the wings, replacing 
broken struts, rigging up the wiring, and overhauling 
the pontoons or boat portion of the machines; have a 
working knowledge of the construction of heavier-than- 
air flying machines ; and be familiar with the principles 
of flying. The course covered a period of ten weeks, 
the first two weeks of which were devoted to such sub- 
jects as infantry drill, the study of naval regulations, 
and guard and detail duty. 

The School for Aviation Machinists' Mates gradu- 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 129 

ated men qualified to care for and repair aeroplane mo- 
tors. Special training was given in the care and repair 
of Liberty motors. Not only did the students in this 
school have to learn quickly to detect engine troubles 
and apply the remedy, but to use the many kinds of shop 
machines and tools required for the upkeep of aeroplane 
motors. The course covered a period of three months. 

At the time the School for Aviation Armorers was es- 
tablished there was no settled policy as to the training 
of such armorers. The need of men with such training 
was just being fully realized, as the service was only 
then beginning to feel the lack of competent men to care 
for the various types of armament peculiar to aerial 
warfare. 

The course of study determined upon was extremely 
intensive and covered a period of two months. As an 
example of this, each man, when reciting, was required 
to stand at attention immediately his name was called, 
and the instructors were trained to ask a multitude of 
questions which could be answered briefly, rather than 
have the student go into detail in the manner of recita- 
tion. The result of this method was to keep the interest 
and attention of the class on edge at all times. 

The subjects studied by the Aviation Armorers in- 
cluded the Marlin and Lewis machine guns, the Clark 
bomb, the Springfield rifle, the Colt 45-calibre pistol, the 
Davis 3-pound gun, Very's signal pistol, bombing gears 
and sights, and mechanical and hydraulic types of syn- 
chronizing gears. Also a course of training in the use 
of shop tools. 

The first students in the School for Aviation Armor- 
ers were men detailed by the Bureau of Navigation from 
the rifle ranges in the east, and from the Lewis Machine- 



130 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Gun School, and the Savage Arms Company. All the 
other students were men picked from the Incoming De- 
tention units at Great Lakes. 

The Aviation Unit at Great Lakes turned out a total 
of 3350 graduates, of whom the Machinists' Mates were 
2158 in number; the Quartermasters, 850; the Armor- 
ers, 300; and the Ground Officers, 41. 

Popular opinion bestowed upon the actual flyers all 
of the excitement of the aerial branch of the service, 
but the falconers of old considered it a great sport to 
take their birds out and watch them battle high in the 
air with some feathered foe. The aviation ground men 
were as vitally interested in the success of their charges 
as were those sportsmen of old. The success of the 
battle depended quite as much upon the condition of the 
machine as it did upon the skill of the flyer. 

The officers attached to the Aviation Unit during the 
late summer of 1918 were: Lieutenant Lee Hammond, 
Commanding Officer; Lieutenant C. S. Baker; Lieu- 
tenant (j. g.) E. H. Barry; Lieutenant (j. g.) F. B. 
Christmas; Lieutenant (j. g.) D. P. Forbes; Lieutenant 
(j. g.) P. K. Wrigley; Lieutenant (j. g.) Malcolm R. 
McNeill; Ensign D. B. Billings; Ensign F. F. DeClark; 
Ensign F. S. Dorhman; Ensign G. D. Dumas; Ensign 
H. H. Fitch; Ensign S. P. Mahoney; Ensign H. B. 
Groom; Ensign R. M. Modisette; Ensign P. G. B. 
Morriss; Ensign G. M. Peltz; Ensign W. C. Shilling; 
Ensign F. H. Starr; Ensign L. A. Vilas; Ensign R. L. 
Whitman; Boatswain Walter Brown; Gunner P. S. 
Drake; Machinist C. E. Edwards; Machinist H. A. 
Kjos ; Machinist H. W. Loyd ; Machinist J. S. Marley ; 
Machinist L. J. Pitzer; Machinist C. A. Sneddon; Ma- 
chinist Ray D. Wilson. 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 131 

THE OFFICER MATERIAL SCHOOL 

It might be said that the Officer Material School at 
Great Lakes had its beginning with a class of forty men, 
consisting of a number of warrant officers, chief petty 
officers, and men of lower ratings, which received in- 
struction in building 303, Camp Dewey, during the 
months of January and February, 1918. This class was 
under the supervision of Lieutenant-Commander Ogden 
T. McClurg. The course given the students consisted 
of Navigation, Ordnance, Seamanship, and Drill. The 
class was recommended for commissions by Captain 
Moffett at the completion of the course. This class re- 
ceived commissions as ensigns in the Naval Reserve 
Force, class 4, in March, 1918, and the majority of the 
men were assigned to duty in the Ninth, Tenth and 
Eleventh Naval Districts. The last six months of the 
war, however, found many of these men occupying 
berths as officers on ships of the fleet. 

On April 17, 1918, seventy-five enlisted men, chosen 
by regimental commanders and heads of departments on 
the Station as prospective candidates for the Annapolis 
Reserve Course, were formed into a class and given a 
three-weeks' course of preparatory instruction. Lieu- 
tenant F. C. McCord was placed in charge of this class. 
His assistant instructors were Lieutenants Arthur Rob- 
inson and Paul Hendron. Early in May, Lieutenants 
C. J. McReavy and Perry R. Taylor were attached. 

The original intention was that the fifty men who 
passed highest in this class should be sent to Annapolis, 
but, when the call came, the quota allowed Great Lakes 
accommodated only thirty-four. The thirty-four men 
chosen were commissioned as ensigns in the Naval Re- 



132 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

serve Force, class 4, on May 31, and sent to Annapolis 
for the four months' course which would qualify them 
for temporary commissions in the regular Navy. 

At about the same time the Bureau of Navigation au- 
thorized the establishment of a regularly constituted 
Officer Material School at Great Lakes, and the thirty- 
nine men of the class of seventy-five who studied for 
entrance to the Annapolis Reserve School, but who failed 
to be sent there, were the first students enrolled in this 
new school, and comprised the first and second classes. 

Beginning with June, 1918, a new class, composed of 
twenty men selected from the different regiments and 
departments at Great Lakes, and eight men selected 
from the other District organizations, entered the school 
each month. No candidates were received directly into 
the school from civil life. It was necessary for men 
wishing to enter this school to enlist in the regular Navy 
or the Naval Reserve Force, serve at least two months 
at Great Lakes or in the Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Na- 
val Districts, be recommended for the school by their 
regimental commander or commanding officer, and pass 
a competitive examination. 

The minimum age for candidates was twenty years 
and eight months ; they had to be physically qualified to 
perform all the duties of a line officer afloat; and they 
had to be high school graduates or the equivalent, and 
know trigonometry. 

The course of study covered a period of sixteen weeks, 
and the intention was to graduate one class of twenty- 
eight men each month. The subjects studied qualified 
the students for deck duties only, and consisted of Navi- 
gation, Ordnance, Seamanship, and Regulations and Na- 
val Customs. 




Instructors in Officer Material School 

At Work on a Flying Boat 
A Miniature Flying Machine Designed by the Students 




One of the Famous "Singing Squares" 

Presentation of the Colors 
A Review on a Pageant Day 



THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS 133 

Graduates of the school were recommended to the 
Bureau of Navigation for commissions as ensigns in the 
Naval Reserve Force, class 4, for duty at sea or in the 
Naval Districts, or for an intensive course of instruction 
at Annapolis. 

Lieutenant F. C. McCord was placed in charge of the 
school, which was at that time located in Camp Dewey, 
in quarters that were so thoroughly inadequate that 
plans were developed for the construction of a specially 
designed group of school buildings. On June I, 1918, 
Lieutenant C. J. McReavy relieved Lieutenant McCord 
as head of the school. During the summer months re- 
markable progress was made in spite of the handicap of 
inadequate quarters. 

The first class to graduate from the school consisted 
of nineteen men, three of whom were commissioned two 
weeks before their course was completed, as they were 
needed for overseas duty. The remaining sixteen men 
received their commissions in August. 

The first of September the organization of the school 
was further perfected by the establishment of an execu- 
tive and disciplinary department, with Lieutenant Perry 
R. Taylor in charge. A new system of school regula- 
tions incorporating a demerit clause which took account 
of such offenses as turning the head in ranks, unpol- 
ished shoes, and the like, was instituted. The result 
was a gratifying "tightening up." 

The second class to be graduated consisted of twenty 
students. These men received their commissions Sep- 
tember 30, 1918. 

The group of buildings constructed for the particular 
purpose of the Officer Material School was completed 
about the middle of September, but, due to the influenza 



134 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

epidemic, the move to the new quarters was not made 
until October 2. 

The new unit consisted of an Administration Build- 
ing and Instruction Building, four barracks buildings, 
and a mess hall. The Administration Building con- 
tained the offices of the school, the officers' quarters, a 
wardroom, and a dining room. In the Instruction 
Building were located four large classrooms, a rigging 
loft, and the offices of the instructors. The barracks 
buildings each contained twenty-eight rooms, each of 
which was occupied by two students, and a recreation 
room. On the roofs of all the buildings in the unit 
were mounted signal bridges and masts for use in the 
course on signaling. Each one of these bridges repre- 
sented a ship. 

The officers and instructors attached to the school 
when the armistice was signed were as follows : Com- 
manding Officer, Lieutenant C. J. McReavy, U. S. N. ; 
Executive Officer, Lieutenant Perry R. Taylor, U. S. N. ; 
Officer in Charge of Navigation Department, Lieutenant 
T. M. Leovy, U. S. N. ; Assistant Navigation Instructor, 
Ensign Thor Norberg; Officer in Charge of Ordnance 
Department, Lieutenant (j. g.) D. R. Knape, U. S. N. ; 
Assistant Ordnance Instructor, Lieutenant (j. g.) H. 
E. Coe, Jr., U. S. N. ; Officer in Charge of Seamanship 
Department, Lieutenant (j. g.) M. T. Wilkerson, U. S. 
N. ; Assistant Seamanship Instructor, Ensign K. Scott. 



CHAPTER VIII 

PAGEANT DAYS AND SPECIAL REVIEWS 

THOUSANDS of visitors thronged Great Lakes 
on pageant days. They came in long train- 
loads, on electric cars, and in automobiles. 
They came singly and in groups, from far-distant as 
well as nearby towns and cities; great delegations of 
them came from all the larger communities of the Mid- 
dle West. 

Every Wednesday afternoon they flowed in a steady 
stream through the guarded gates, then lost themselves 
in the great wooden camps and in the multiplicity of 
tented streets, finally to become massed around the main 
parade ground to witness a series of drills and battle 
maneuvers the like of which was not duplicated any- 
where else in America. 

And whatever the impulse that brought them, whether 
of curiosity, a desire for excitement, or some deeper 
personal urge, these visiting thousands became en- 
veloped in an atmosphere that lifted them off their feet. 
It was magnificent, the sight that greeted their eyes; 
the spirit that permeated it all. There was nothing like 
it anywhere, on so large a scale. 

Imagine the scene that spread out before the visiting 
thousands on Wednesday afternoons during the sum- 
mer of 1918. Imagine it! Forty-five thousand of the 
youth of the Middle West perhaps a fourth of them 
just out of high school, and the majority of them under 

135 



136 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

twenty-one Standing By for Inspection, or Passing in 
Review on the great drill field. Down the field they 
come, battalion after battalion of them, swinging along 
to the martial music of America's greatest band; their 
white uniforms spotless, their rifles glinting in the sun ; 
their faces bronzed and cheery. 

And more than the martial music of the bands, the 
booming of cannon, and the pageantry of marching men, 
it was, I think, the pervasive spirit of all those young 
faces that so tremendously moved the visiting thousands 
to enthusiasm. 

Great Lakes was undoubtedly the show place of the 
Middle West during the war period, and probably the 
biggest military attraction in the entire country. There 
was not one Wednesday review held during the sum- 
mer months of 1918 at which the number of visitors fell 
below 30,000, and during July and August the number 
rose above 40,000. On one of the Pageant Days in 
August, 46,000 visitors entered the gates of the Main 
Station. On this day the automobiles allowed to pass 
through the gates numbered 4200. 

On such days the railroads and electric lines connect- 
ing Great Lakes with Chicago were taxed to the utmost. 
The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad started run- 
ning special trains long before noon, and even then 
could not take care of the traffic. Thousands of people 
could get no further than the train shed in Chicago, so 
great was the congestion. The interurban electric roads 
ran double and triple-headers as close together as they 
could be operated, and the Chicago elevated lines ran 
long trains of its cars all the way to Great Lakes over 
the lines of the Chicago, North Shore and Milwaukee 
Railroad. For hours on these days the roads between 



PAGEANT DAYS AND SPECIAL REVIEWS 137 

Chicago and Great Lakes were as thick with automobiles 
as any great city thoroughfare. 

The throngs of visitors came early and stayed late. 
Thousands of them had to wait hours before they could 
get near a train or electric car. For miles the auto- 
mobiles had to move at a snail's pace so great was the 
congestion on the highways. Yet every week found the 
crowds greater. It is estimated that several hundred 
thousand people, thousands of whom came hundreds of 
miles, visited Great Lakes and carried away with them 
a clear idea of what Navy efficiency means. 

The regular Pageant Day feature was the Passing 
in Review before the Commandant and his staff, and 
any particularly distinguished visitors, of the thousands 
of white-clad bluejackets. After the review several 
drills were given, the most popular of these being the 
physical drill under arms, the men executing the differ- 
ent movements in cadence with the music. Another ex- 
ceptionally popular feature was the "singing squares.'* 
In this formation a battalion of four companies formed 
a hollow square, with the regimental band in the middle, 
and marched past the reviewing stand, singing. 

On special Pageant Days a sham battle followed the 
regular review. A bugle sounded. Three heavily 
armed tanks propelled themselves across the parade 
ground, followed by a motorcycle battery of machine 
guns. Company after company of white-clad sailors 
advanced in wave formation, their heads hooded in gas 
masks. From the grove of trees to the west a battery of 
camouflaged three-inch field pieces opened up with ear- 
splitting detonations. The cannon projecting through 
the gun ports of the tanks answered, the advancing sail- 
ors fired in volleys ; gas bombs were exploded along the 



i 3 8 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

entire line of advance, throwing out thick clouds of yel- 
low smoke. The noise of battle became deafening, the 
bursts of sound from the machine guns and the rattle of 
musketry filling the gaps between the detonations of the 
larger guns. High overhead two flying boats circled 
and swooped. Here and there a sailor dropped, to be 
cared for a few minutes later by the men of the hospital 
corps, who rendered first aid and carried them from the 
field. Then the battle was over and the thousands of 
spectators scattered to hunt up relatives or friends 
among the bluejackets, or to re-gather in the great ra- 
vine amphitheatre to watch the boxing matches. The 
sides of the ravine were built up into tiers of seats and 
accommodated close to fifteen thousand spectators. 

Many notable men, both American and European, 
visited Great Lakes during the war period and watched 
the bluejackets pass in review on the regular weekly 
Pageant Days or on special occasions. Among them 
were : Colonel Roosevelt ; Rear Admiral L. C. Palmer, 
Chief of the Bureau of Navigation; Rear Admiral Al- 
bert Ross, the first Commandant at Great Lakes; Rear 
Admiral Cameron McRae Winslow ; Secretary Daniels, 
who visited that Station twice; Rear Admiral Harris, 
Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks ; Rear Admiral 
W. C. Braisted, Surgeon General of the Navy; ex-Presi- 
dent William Howard Taf t ; Captain Roald Amundsen, 
discoverer of the South Pole ; William G. Me Adoo, Sec- 
retary of the Treasury; Dr. Henry Van Dyke, at one 
time United States Ambassador to the Netherlands; 
Surgeon-General Gorgas, U. S. A. ; Admiral W. S. Ben- 
son, Chief of Naval Operations; Count Vincenzo 
Macchi di Cellere, the Italian Ambassador ; General Em- 
ilie Gughelmotti, Italian Military Attache ; Captain Gui- 



PAGEANT DAYS AND SPECIAL REVIEWS 139 

seppe Bevione, Chairman of the Italian Chamber of 
Deputies; the Duke of Devonshire, Governor General 
of Canada; Captain Arthur Snagge, British Naval At- 
tache to the United States ; Colonel Hammersley, Mem- 
ber of British Parliament ; Captain H. A. Clive, British 
Army; Mr. Colville Barcley, C. B. E., M. V. D., Acting 
British Minister during the absence of the British Am- 
bassador, Lord Reading; Major-General J. G. Mc- 
Lachan, D. S. O., British Military Attache at Washing- 
ton; Brigadier-General W. A. Whitehead, C. M. G., 
Head of British-Canadian Recruiting Commission; 
Prince Axel of Denmark; Governor Frank O. Lowden 
of Illinois ; Ira Nelson Morris, American Ambassador to 
Sweden. 

What many of these men had to say about Great 
Lakes should be of interest to every man connected with 
it. The following comment of Admiral Benson, the 
highest officer in the Navy, made when he visited Great 
Lakes in November, 1918, should be particularly grati- 
fying: 

"After seeing the work being done here I am leaving 
with renewed confidence in the ultimate success of the 
work laid out for the Navy to perform. 

"It is impossible to say too much in praise of Captain 
Mofrett and the way he is conducting the Station. I 
am speechless. The spirit that pervades this Station is 
so fine that it is hard to put it into words. Every ele- 
ment fits in exactly in the teamwork of the whole. 
Every man seems to have an intelligent appreciation of 
what we are trying to accomplish and with that failure 
is impossible. Every man feels his individual responsi- 
bility. That is shown by the work being done on this 
Station. 

"I was over in Camp Farragut last night and saw the 



i 4 o THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

men there. They have taken hold of things already. 
They show what the young men of America can do. 
Mr. Sharpe is doing great work with the new men. 
That is just one of the things that fits in the general 
scheme that is carried on here. 

"The band is the most inspiring thing I have ever 
listened to. It is doing a great war work. I believe it 
is doing more to arouse the spirit of the people than any 
other one element. It carries the spirit of Great Lakes 
to all the cities it visits on its Liberty Loan and other 
tours. 

"Great Lakes has always had the reputation of send- 
ing the best men to the Fleet. It has maintained that 
reputation even when the men were sent out without 
the full period of training. I know it will keep that 
reputation." 

The Italian Ambassador was particularly impressed 
with what he saw at Great Lakes. Probably no greater 
compliment was paid the Station than "The Spirit of 
America is concentrated here at Great Lakes." 

"I came here expecting to see a great naval station," 
he continued, "but I didn't realize its greatness until 
after I saw what you are doing. I was greatly sur- 
prised when your Commandant told me that the men 
leading the companies were ordinary sailors. In Italy 
we would have three, four, five commissioned officers 
with each company. But that is the way you are doing 
things here. 

"It is hard for me to put into words what I think 
of Great Lakes. I am so surprised at the great war 
preparations here that I don't know just how to express 
my wonder. But now I know at least one reason why 
the United States has been so successful in getting men 
to France. It is because you are turning out such fine 
fighting men." 



PAGEANT DAYS AND SPECIAL REVIEWS 141 

The efficiency of Great Lakes was epitomized by Cap- 
tain Arthur Snagge of the British Navy as follows: 
"If Great Lakes is the largest Naval Station in the 
United States it is easily the biggest in the world; no 
English Station can compare with Great Lakes in size 
at all. What strikes me is the obvious interest, the ob- 
vious keenness to learn in these men. Great Lakes is 
the most complete thing of its kind I have ever seen. I 
can appreciate this training station after my eight 
years' experience as head of the Naval Physical Train- 
ing Headquarters Station at Portsmouth, England." 

"Great Lakes is going to make the people of the 
Mississippi Valley feel that they have a frontage on 
both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans," declared Dr. 
Henry Van Dyke, in addressing the bluejackets. "I 
am happy to be here in this, the greatest Station of the 
finest Navy in the world. I feel that this Station is go- 
ing to do something more, something in addition to 
training men for active service in our splendid Navy. 
It is going to inspire the spirit of patriotism right here 
in the central location of our country." 

"I haven't the words in your American language to 
express how wonderful it all is," said Captain Roald 
Amundsen. "It is more than wonderful." 

Secretary Daniels had the following things to say 
when he addressed the men at Great Lakes : 

Great Lakes always sent the best men to the Fleet, 
and since the war it has sent even better men. A gentle- 
man asked me some time ago where the Great Lakes 
Station was located. I told him that it was located in 
the hearts of the American people, and that in its men 
the country had reposed a confidence which would be 
fully justified. You already know that whenever the 



142 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

captains and commanders in the Fleet wish men who 
are clean of limb and clear of head, able instantly to do 
any work they are called upon to do, that the training at 
Great Lakes is a certificate of efficiency. 

There was a fiction some years ago that the Navy 
was found on the Atlantic and Pacific, but the world 
has come to know now that the greatest Naval establish- 
ment in America is here in the heart of the Middle West. 

A few days ago I had the pleasure of meeting a dis- 
tinguished visitor from Great Britain, the Archbishop 
of York. He said to me "When I return to Great 
Britain, the deepest impression I will carry with me, and 
the one I think speaks highest for American efficiency, 
will have to do with the 30,000 youths at Great Lakes." 

I have taken occasion to examine the records of the 
various training stations and of the young men who 
come into the Navy. I have found from statistics that 
the young men who come from Great Lakes have in their 
bodies and in their spirits the things that make a sailor 
meet every need. In cleanness of living, and absence 
from disease that scars body and mind, the recruit from 
Great Lakes surpasses those from any other Station in 
our Navy. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE GREAT LAKES' "LIBERTY" BAND 

IT was only appropriate that Great Lakes, the largest 
Naval Training Station in the world, should have 
the most wonderful military band in America a 
band that won country-wide fame. 

It was not surprising that this great band of fourteen 
hundred musicians, the average age of whom was nine- 
teen years, should have proved, when it toured the coun- 
try in several detachments, to be the most effective or- 
ganization in all the United States for the arousing of a 
deep, sincere patriotism of the kind that makes sacrifices 
as well as applauds. 

Perhaps at no time was the power of music over the 
minds and pocketbooks of Americans so keenly demon- 
strated as during the Second, Third and Fourth Liberty 
Loan campaigns. A great number of "boosters" of na- 
tional prominence were at the disposal of the loan man- 
agers, eloquent speakers harangued the public on every 
street corner and in every place of entertainment, but it 
remained for the Great Lakes bandsmen, leading great 
patriotic parades, to add the final punch. 

During the Second Liberty Loan campaign, the Great 
Lakes Naval Band, which at that time numbered about 
three hundred and fifty musicians, toured the principal 
cities of the East, with the result that in many instances 
districts oversubscribed their apportionment nearly 

143 



i 4 4 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

double, while every community visited by the band in- 
creased its subscriptions. 

On October 12, 1917, Baltimore, Md., held two his- 
tory-making Liberty Loan rallies, during both of which 
the Great Lakes Naval Band effectively aroused the peo- 
ple to an enthusiastic acceptance of the duty required 
of them. Inspired by this band, the 18,000 people, who 
attended each of the two rallies, subscribed $20,348,200. 
Thus Baltimore, helped by Great Lakes, accomplished 
what its newspapers described as the biggest triumph in 
its history. 

The story was the same wherever the Great Lakes' 
Naval Band played during the Second Liberty Loan 
campaign. This great band made its first appearance 
in New York as a big feature of New York's "Red 
Cross" week, in October, 1917. Fifth Avenue wasn't 
big enough for it. 

It was not to be wondered at, therefore, that, in mak- 
ing the plans for the Third Liberty Loan campaign, 
Secretary McAdoo asked Secretary Daniels for the use 
of the Great Lakes bandsmen. Captain Moffett as- 
signed detachments of the band to practically every Fed- 
eral Reserve District, except those that bordered on the 
Atlantic and Pacific Coasts. More than six hundred 
members of the band were en route at one time during 
this campaign. 

Detachments of the great band, made up as follows, 
were assigned to five of the Federal Reserve districts : 

Third Federal Reserve District, headquarters, Phila- 
delphia: one detachment of sixty pieces, under Band- 
master Wm. Brown. This band toured eastern Penn- 
sylvania and New Jersey. 

Fourth Federal Reserve District, headquarters, Cleve- 



THE GREAT LAKES' "LIBERTY" BAND 145 

land: one detachment of fifty-four pieces, under First 
Musician F. G. Scheon. This band toured Ohio, west- 
ern Pennsylvania and part of West Virginia. 

Seventh Federal Reserve District, headquarters, Chi- 
cago : a detachment of one hundred and fifty-five pieces, 
including a fife and drum corps of thirty pieces. After 
playing in Chicago and two or three of the larger cities 
as one band, this detachment was broken up into five 
bands and toured Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin 
and Iowa. 

Eighth Federal Reserve District, headquarters, St. 
Louis: a detachment of one hundred and twenty-five 
pieces, under Bandmaster V. J. Grabel. This band 
played before 200,000 people in St. Louis, and later was 
broken up into five bands to tour Missouri, Arkansas, 
Northern Mississippi, Western Kentucky and Southern 
Illinois. 

Tenth Federal Reserve District, headquarters, Kan- 
sas City: one detachment of fifty pieces, under Band- 
master H. A. Foelker. This band toured Kansas, 
Oklahoma, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming and northern 
New Mexico. 

In addition to the regular district assignments, bands 
of fifty pieces were sent out for trips of short duration, 
playing in Duluth, Minn.; Grand Rapids, Saginaw and 
Detroit, Mich. ; and in two or three Wisconsin cities. 

The Battalion Band, composed of three hundred 
pieces, accompanied by Lieutenant Sousa, and with 
Monk Tennant, the "Peacock of the Navy," as drum 
major, appeared at St. Louis, Lexington, Ky., Cincin- 
nati and Chicago. 

During the Fourth Liberty Loan campaign more than 
1 200 musicians of the Great Lakes Band toured the 



i 4 6 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

country, appearing in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, 
Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Da- 
kota, Montana, Missouri, Kansas, Mississippi, Tennes- 
see, Kentucky, Texas, Colorado, Nebraska, Oklahoma, 
Wyoming, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, New 
Jersey and Connecticut. 

The Battalion Band, with Lieutenant Sousa in charge, 
covered 3000 miles, appearing in Cleveland and Colum- 
bus, Ohio; Washington, D. C; Baltimore, Md. ; Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; New York, Brooklyn, Portchester, New 
Rochelle, Ossining, Peekskill, Yonkers, Troy, Albany 
and Buffalo, N. Y. ; Patterson and Hoboken, N. J. ; New 
Haven, Hartford, Bridgeport and Norfolk, Conn. ; De- 
troit, Battle Creek and Grand Rapids, Mich. ; and Chi- 
cago, 111. 

The demand for the music of this band was so great 
that it was forced to play morning, afternoon and eve- 
ning, and at times it made three cities in one day. One 
bandsman, who claimed that he kept an accurate count 
of the number of miles marched in the above mentioned 
twenty-five cities, figured that the bandsmen covered ap- 
proximately four hundred miles. After an evening 
concert the musicians would go aboard the train and 
wash their clothes, so as to maintain Great Lakes' repu- 
tation for neat appearance. 

The big day during the Fourth Liberty Loan cam- 
paign was October 12, when "Liberty Day" was cele- 
brated throughout the country. On this day 1200 mem- 
bers of the Great Lakes band participated in the parades 
held in the various cities. The Battalion Band led the 
parade in New York in which President Wilson partici- 
pated. The parade in Chicago was led by a band de- 
tachment of two hundred pieces, in charge of Senior 



THE GREAT LAKES' "LIBERTY" BAND 147 

Bandmaster R. Tainter, and seven hundred Great Lakes 
bandsmen, in detachments of from thirty to sixty pieces 
each, appeared in parades in practically all the other 
large cities in the country, excepting New Orleans and 
San Francisco. 

The Great Lakes Naval bands made an everlasting 
impression wherever they appeared. The fine appear- 
ance of the young musicians as they swung along in 
their natty blue uniforms, set off with white leggings 
and hats, the kind of music they played, and the zest 
with which they rendered it, moved the vast crowds who 
heard them with a great, surging thrill. 

There was something in the playing of the Great 
Lakes' bandsmen that other bands seemed to lack. An 
editorial tribute in the Chicago Tribune expressed it as 
follows: "In this office, situated on a principal corner 
of the city, there is a long and checkered experience 
with American band music. We make, therefore, with 
some personal emotion, our acknowledgments to the 
bluejacket band which has been taking part in the Lib- 
erty Loan drive. It is a part of the huge Great Lakes 
Naval Band and an honor to it. When it is heard ap- 
proaching, there is no doubt as to what band is coming. 
There is a swinging, martial spirit which is all its own. 
It is real martial music, of which in this pacific country 
there is very little. We hope that the Great Lakes Naval 
Band has given the campaign band a new standard and 
a new view of life. If it turns out to be so, we shall 
owe another great debt to Great Lakes." 

At the beginning of the war the Great Lakes Naval 
Band consisted of about fifty musicians, under Senior 
Bandmaster Richard Tainter. By the end of May, 
1917, the band had increased to two hundred and forty- 



148 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

two musicians, and John Phillip Sousa, the "March 
King," had been enrolled as a lieutenant in the Naval 
Reserve Force. Lieutenant Sousa was attached to 
Great Lakes as commanding officer of the band, and 
took active charge of the larger detachments, notably 
the Battalion Band, during the Liberty Loan and Red 
Cross campaigns. His last tour with the band was to 
Toronto, Canada, just before the armistice was signed, 
from which city he was compelled to go to his home at 
Port Washington, Long Island, on account of illness. 

At the height of its growth the Great Lakes Band 
consisted of fifteen hundred musicians, formed into a 
Battalion Band of three hundred pieces, and fourteen 
large regimental bands. This group of musicians ap- 
peared a number of times in regimental formation on the 
main drill field at Great Lakes, the entire personnel play- 
ing at the same time with success. Imagine it! Fif- 
teen hundred finely trained young bandsmen, with the 
"Peacock of the Navy," at their head, advancing down 
the drill field in solid formation. A torrent of stirring 
martial music enveloped you as might a sudden storm ; a 
mighty, energizing volume of music that thrilled you 
through and through. Detachments of the Great Lakes 
Band were heard by hundreds of thousands of people 
throughout the country, but nowhere were the blue- 
jacket bandsmen heard playing as one unit except at 
Great Lakes. One day in August, 1918, sixty-eight mu- 
sicians of the Music Militaire Pranqaise, the greatest 
of French military bands, visited Great Lakes. This 
French band was greeted by the largest band ever as- 
sembled a band composed of nearly fifteen hundred 
horns and drums and fifes and tubas, playing "We are 
coming." 



THE GREAT LAKES' "LIBERTY" BAND 149 

But it was not because Great Lakes wanted to have 
the biggest band in the world that so many musicians 
were enrolled. It was because Captain Moffett realized 
the value of martial music as an energizer, as a means 
for loosening pent-up enthusiasm and making it spill 
over. 

Detachments of the Great Lakes Naval Band were in 
enormous demand during the war period as marching 
bands, concert bands, and as orchestras. A record was 
kept that showed hundreds of engagements. The peo- 
ple of St. Louis seemed to be particularly desirous of 
having members of the Great Lakes band playing in 
and about their city. They had one or more bands en- 
gaged in some kind of war work during practically the 
entire war period. 

During 1918 the demand upon Great Lakes to provide 
bands for the Fleet and for Naval bases was consider- 
able. The largest single order was for nineteen com- 
plete bands to be placed upon the transports bringing 
the soldiers home from France. From November 10 
to November 25, 1918, one band per day was shoved off 
from Great Lakes, so that a continuous chain of bands, 
one day apart, extended from this Station to the eastern 
coast and far out into the Atlantic. 

A total of 3056 musicians were enrolled and trained 
at Great Lakes during the war period. Approximately 
2250 of these musicians were transferred to the fleet 
and to Naval bases. About forty bands were sent 
aboard ship. 

Early in the spring of 1918, owing to the large num- 
ber of orchestral musicians who desired enrollment, it 
was decided to form a band unit that could on occasion 
be transformed into a real symphony orchestra. This 



i 5 o THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

orchestra contained young musicians who had played in 
various symphony orchestras of the country, including 
those of Minneapolis, Chicago, Pittsburg, Philadelphia 
and Detroit. As the Great Lakes Symphony Orchestra 
it became widely known. The leader of this orchestra 
was Bandmaster Felber, formerly with the Chicago 
Symphony Orchestra. 

The following is Lieutenant John Philip Sousa's de- 
scription of his activities as leader of the Great Lakes 
"Liberty" Band: 

"In the report of the English Commission appointed 
to determine the things most important in winning the 
war music was placed only after food, clothing and 
shelter. 

"The first to recognize the necessity and attractive- 
ness of the concert band, a combination of wood-wind, 
brass and percussion for purely indoor concerts was 
Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore, who, to use his own words, 
'came from Ireland and was born in Boston nineteen 
years later.' He merged the military band of the 22nd 
N. Y. N. G. into the Gilmore Concert Band that toured 
this country from coast to coast and was the musical 
Messiah bringing the glad tidings to the many that 
Wagner, Liszt, Verdi, Rossini, and other great compos- 
ers were realities and not musical myths. 

"In recalling the work and effect of music during the 
war there is probably no one in America more entitled 
to the thanks of our people than Captain W. A. Moffett, 
Commandant of the Great Lakes Naval Station during 
the war period. This officer, combining the qualities of 
an organizer and administrator, a diplomat and a lover 
of music, realizing the great importance of music in 
stimulating recruiting, in entertaining, in the pomp and 
circumstances of military life, and in bringing to the 




The "Rookie" Band 

Lieutenant Sousa and a Section of the Great Lakes Band 
A Detachment of the Great Lakes Band Heading a Parade in Chicago 




Secretaries of the Y. M. C. A. going through Military Formations 

M. H. Bickham, General Y. M. C. A. Secretary 

The Corps of Chaplains 



THE GREAT LAKES' "LIBERTY" BAND 151 

surface all that is patriotic in us, stands among the lead- 
ing figures of the war. 

"At our entrance into the war, he began recruiting 
musicians for the Navy, and after he had attached to 
his station some one hundred and odd players, he asked 
my friend, John Alden Carpenter, the well-known com- 
poser, and one of his officers, Lieutenant James McKes- 
son Bower, to ask if I would not come to Great Lakes 
and talk over band matters with him. I left New York 
immediately and went to Great Lakes, where the Gap- 
tain and myself had an interview on the necessity of 
music during the war. He asked me if I would not ac- 
cept a commission as lieutenant of the line and take 
charge of the musical forces. I accepted, and I might 
add, I was offered by the Commandant two promotions 
during the twenty months I was there but refused them 
because I felt a lieutenant could do the work just as 
thoroughly as an officer of higher grade. Captain Mof- 
fett and myself began formulating our plans and re- 
cruiting as rapidly as possible. I found the musicians 
at the station had all sorts of instruments, of all sorts 
of makes and pitch, but after the forces had been re- 
cruited to six hundred, the Commandant asked the Navy 
Department for an appropriation to purchase instru- 
ments of one pitch and of a standard make. The Hon* 
orable, the Secretary of the Navy, granted this request 
and we were given forty thousand dollars for instru- 
mental equipment. 

"Although band units and individual players we're 
continually sent overseas or to the fleet or other stations, 
the recruiting was so persistent that during the war we 
had at all times a thousand or more players in training. 
Our first consideration was the organization of the Band 
battalion. 

"The Band battalion consisted of seventeen files of 
sixteen men each and one file of drums of twelve; the 
first and second file numbered thirty-two field trumpets 



1 52 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

in 'F'; the third and fourth, thirty-two trombones; the 
fifth, sixth and seventh, forty-eight cornets; the eighth 
and ninth, thirty-two horns and altos ; the tenth, eleventh 
and twelfth, twenty-four euphoniums and twenty-four 
basses ; the thirteenth, ten small drums ; one bass drum, 
one cymbal ; the fourteenth, sixteen saxaphones ; the fif- 
teenth, sixteenth and seventeenth, forty-eight *B' clario- 
nets; the eighteenth file divided among piccolos, flutes 
and oboes and 'E' clarionets. 

"In the formation of the battalion the soprano brass 
was placed on the right flank and the soprano reed on 
the left flank. The drums came between the heaviest 
brass and the heaviest reeds. 

"Apart from the band musicians and field music, we 
had a color-guard, with a beautiful set of colors pre- 
sented us by some ladies of New York; guidons, a gift 
from the New York Hippodrome Organization ; hospital 
stewards, master-at-arms, one bandmaster for each divi- 
sion of seventy-five, drum-major and three commis- 
sioned officers in charge of the military, the musical and 
the medical departments of the battalion. 

"We also organized regimental detachments of fifty- 
six men, a double unit of the Delaware type, under the 
command of a bandmaster and a drum-major. We had 
at the station at times as high as seventeen of these 
bands. 

"The instrumentation of the regimental bands was 
made to conform very largely to that of the Band bat- 
talion. It will be noted that in the instrumentation the 
first consideration was given to volume and carrying 
power with the idea that as the military band's work of 
necessity must be largely outdoors, it is of more ad- 
vantage to have volume than it is to have variegated 
coloring." 



CHAPTER X 
GREAT LAKES' ATHLETIC RECORD 

WHEN the United States entered the World 
War, Great Lakes, with its comparatively 
small number of men, was hardly considered 
as an athletic factor in the Middle West, other than as 
a possible opponent for some of the smaller colleges. 

Over night Great Lakes expanded from a few hun- 
dred men to many thousands, and with this increase 
came some of the best athletes in the country. No finer 
set of athletes was ever assembled not the mere beef 
and bone which is called an athlete in some quarters, 
but the alive, alert, sensitive, American athlete, all nerve 
and sinew, with speed and intelligence equally developed 
with bone and brawn. 

During the war period Great Lakes set the pace in 
athletics, producing wonderful teams and individual 
athletes. Athletics became one of the dominating train- 
ing ideas, a sure method of developing the "fight" in- 
stinct that produces the winning punch. 

Captain William A. Moffett, Commander John B. 
Kaufman, Athletic Director, and Lieutenant "Jack" 
Kennedy, in direct charge of boxing and wrestling, 
were the three men most responsible for Great Lakes' 
athletic development. Captain Moffett and Com- 
mander Kaufman encouraged the participation in ath- 
letics of all the men on the Station by making the dif- 
ferent games and sports a part of the training course. 

153 



i 5 4 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

This "sports-for-all" idea gave every man an equal 
chance to partake of the benefits of health- and muscle- 
building recreation. 

Regimental Athletic Directors were appointed in the 
various regiments and a systematic program of sports 
framed that was certain to raise the fighting efficiency 
of the men. Plans were immediately made to select 
representative teams to play other training camps and 
athletic organizations-. That this was not an easy 
proposition at the beginning may be judged from the 
fact that when the first call for baseball candidates was 
sent out by the Athletic Officer in May, 1917, there were, 
by actual count, 921 aspiring youths who applied for a 
position on the Station nine. For several days Felix 
Chouinard, at one time with the Chicago White Sox, 
bemoaned the fact that he had been selected by the Ath- 
letic Officer to organize a representative baseball team. 

By adopting the regimental sport system, however, 
it soon became possible for Athletic Director Kaufman 
to place his finger on the men he wanted for his teams. 
Experts in all lines of athletics were enrolled to admin- 
ister the finishing touches to the Great Lakes athletes. 
Track, baseball, football, boxing and wrestling, and 
swimming experts of the Middle West were obtained. 
With their cooperation Great Lakes started to rise to a 
position in the athletic world which became the envy of 
every Army and Navy camp in the country. 

In each case men were found whose experience in 
civil life qualified them to direct the various branches 
of athletics. Great credit should be given to such 
pioneers in the athletic history of Great Lakes as Carl 
Hellberg, Frank Hill, Andy Ward and Eddie Fall in 
Track; Phil Chouinard in Baseball; Addison Stillwell, 



GREAT LAKES' ATHLETIC RECORD 155 

Pat Smith, Hugh Blacklock, Kitty Gordon, Phil Ray- 
mond, Phil Proctor, Homer Johnson, Jimmie Conzel- 
man, Hildner, Loucks, Andrus and Harold Erickson in 
Football; and Bill Johnson, George Halas, John Felm- 
ley, David Peppard, Bill Allen, and Loyd Covney in 
Basketball. 

The record for the 1917 baseball season was not one 
over which the sailors could waltz in ecstasy, but there 
was enough accomplishment to satisfy the athletic di- 
rector that Great Lakes had the stuff of which cham- 
pions are made. The members of the Station baseball 
team in 1917, every one of whom had the real Navy 
fighting spirit, were : Manager Phil Chouinard, Vince 
and Charley LaBarge, Herbert Gibson, Tanner, Bar- 
tholomew, Ripperton, Kleffman, Stair, Goodman, Kohl- 
man, Eissler and Speaker. Of these 1917 players, 
Chouinard, Ripperton, Gibson, Kohlman and Stair sur- 
vived the constantly moving drafts to sea. 

During the 1917 baseball season, scores of games were 
played between the regimental teams, but no regular 
inter-regimental league was formed, owing to the con- 
gested and transient condition of the Station. Players 
who were picked for a unit team on one day would be 
on their way to sea the next. Despite this, however, 
the sports-for-all idea was given a thorough trial and 
was not found to be wanting in a single particular. 

When the leaves turned brown and the autumn sun 
took on the shape and hue of a pigskin in the late after- 
noons, Commander Kaufman sounded the call for foot- 
ball candidates. Again the coaching problem loomed 
large, just as it had in baseball. Then the presence of 
Lieutenant Emmett Angell, Medical Corps, U. S. N. 
R. F., who had been directly interested in athletics at 



156 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

various universities of the country for over ten years 
was discovered. He was called in from one of the 
training ships of the Great Lakes Squadron and given 
the grid mentor's post, with Lieutenant Holly, Medical 
Corps, U. S. N., and Mr. Herman Olcott, of the Com- 
mission on Training Camp Activities, as his assistants. 

Coach Angell had thousands of men to pick from, but, 
strange to relate, the majority of the men who came out 
for the team were absolutely "green." Then Pat Smith, 
captain-elect of the University of Michigan team, ap- 
peared along with three other Maize and Blue warriors, 
and around these stalwarts was built the Great Lakes 
football team of 1917. Phil Proctor of the University 
of Nebraska was another powerful prospect, who later 
developed into one of the season's stars. 

After two weeks of loose practice, hindered by the 
inability of the mentor to obtain real football material, 
the team went to Milwaukee to combat Marquette Uni- 
versity. It was beaten 14 to 7, and to this defeat was 
attributed its later successes, because it made every 
player a fighter. 

Following the first lacing, the team stepped out and 
really covered itself with credit. It battled all its op- 
ponents in a satisfying fashion and made every sailor 
a rooter. The team's record for the season follows: 
Marquett, 14 Great Lakes, 7; Camp Custer, 7 Great 
Lakes, o; Great Lakes, 21 Haskell Indians, 17; Great 
Lakes, 27 Benton Harbor, o; Great Lakes, 23 U. of 
Iowa, 14; Camp Funston, 7 Great Lakes, o; Great 
Lakes, 9 Camp Grant, 6 ; Great Lakes, 27 Fort Sher- 
idan, o. 

The lineup of the team in its important contests fol- 



GREAT LAKES' ATHLETIC RECORD 157 

lows: Conzelman, quarterback; Pat Smith, full back; 
Erickson and Proctor, half backs; Johnson and Ray- 
mond, ends; Allen and Blacklock, tackles; Andrus and 
Robbins, guards; Pottinger, center. 

During all this time track athletics were being de- 
veloped, but competition was confined to general meets 
on the Station. In the first meet there were over a 
thousand entries. 

At about this juncture in the history of Great Lakes 
athletics, there appeared in the enlisted personnel two 
blue jackets who played a great part in placing the Sta- 
tion before the athletic world. These men were Harry 
Hazelhurst and Perry McGillvray, to whom is due all 
credit for Great Lakes supremacy in swimming. Their 
duties were to instruct in swimming and build up a 
team of swimmers to enter into competition with out- 
side teams. This work was started the latter part of 
1917, but due to the lack of pools (there being but one 
on the Station at that time) but little could be accom- 
plished until 1918. 

Great Lakes turned out one of the best basketball fives 
in the country, despite the fact that prospects for a 
powerful team were anything but glittering at the out- 
set. Coach Olcott was placed in charge of the tossers 
and immediately set out to weld together a strong rep- 
resentative team. Among the sailors who turned out 
for the first practice were several who had gained val- 
uable experience in high schools and colleges, but the 
first combination put forth by Coach Olcott was unable 
to hitch and some of the opening contests were dropped 
because of lack of team play and weakness in basket 
popping. 



158 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

It was not until the enlistment of George Halas, cap- 
tain of the University of Illinois five, and Bill Johnson, 
forward on the Illinois Athletic Association five, the 
National A. A. U. championship winner, that the team 
took on the appearance of a title outfit. Peppard of 
the Michigan "Aggies" emerged from Incoming De- 
tention and in short order convinced the coach that he 
was the proper man for center. Covney of Detroit 
was a survivor from the original five. 

Then, with Covney and Johnson at the forwards, 
Peppard at center, and Allen and Halas at guards, 
Great Lakes rapidly popped to the top of the basket- 
ball ladder. Trips were taken through Illinois, Wis- 
consin and Michigan, and, out of eighteen games, the 
sailors landed the decision in seventeen. 

Victories over Camp Custer and Camp Zachary Tay- 
lor gave the Station team the service championship of 
the Middle West. As a reward the players and Coach 
Olcott were presented with gold fobs by Commander 
Kaufman. 

Ice hockey made its bow to the bluejackets as a sport, 
but from a competitive standpoint the season was not 
a success. The team was managed by Yeoman Jim 
Holway. 

An example of the interest and value of inter-regi- 
mental sports was evidenced during the winter of 1917- 
18 in the Station Basketball League, in which fourteen 
teams battled for the tossing championship of the camp. 
After a hard tussle the Hospital School came through 
with the prize in a brilliant game with the Sixth Regi- 
ment, the score beins: 20 to 18. 

Commander Kaufman estimated that eight hundred 



GREAT LAKES' ATHLETIC RECORD 159 

men of the Station took active part in the basketball 
league play during the season, while five thousand ap- 
peared at one time or another in the inter-company 
pleasure skits. 

As a reward for his good work during the 1917 base- 
ball season, Chief Yeoman Phil Chouinard, who later 
was commissioned as an ensign, was honored with the 
management of the 1918 baseball team. 

The year 1918 saw Great Lakes a leader or strong 
contender in every branch of athletics. The baseball 
team was made up of some of the best baseball players 
in the country. It included such men as Red Faber and 
Phil Chouinard, of the White Sox; Joe Leonard, of the 
Senators; Fred Thomas, of the Red Sox; Ben Dyer, of 
the Tigers ; Paddy Driscoll, of the Cubs ; Vern demons, 
of the St. Louis Browns ; Rube Ehrhardt, of Columbus ; 
John Paul Jones, of the Giants; Bill Johnson, of the 
Athletics; George Halas, of the University of Illinois; 
Spence Heath, of the University of Chicago; Rags 
Faircloth, of the Mississippi Aggies; Billy Fox, of 
Joliet; Ray Neusel, Bud Croake, Billy Swanson and 
John Rycroft. Later, the team was enriched by the 
service of Johnnie Lavan of the Senators and George 
Cunningham of the Tigers, and gathered in its first big 
championship game, defeating the best Navy team and 
thus appropriating the championship of the Navy. 
This game was with the team representing the Atlantic 
Fleet, and among its players were such men as Rabbit 
Maranville, Witt, Del Gainor and Durning. The game 
was played at Yorktown, Va., on July 4, and Great 
Lakes won it by a score of 2 to o. Great Lakes later 
cinched its title to the Navy championship by defeating 



160 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

the same team two games out of three at Great Lakes 
and one game at the National League baseball park in 
Chicago. 

Still later, the Great Lakes baseball team turned a 
listening ear to the Fifth Naval District team, which 
boasted of such ball players as Big Bill Jacobson of the 
St. Louis Americans. It defeated this team in two 
straight games at Great Lakes. 

During the 1918 baseball season Great Lakes had 
twenty regimental teams, each completely outfitted in 
distinctive uniforms. At the beginning of the season 
a league containing all these teams was formed, but at 
mid-season it was considered wise to terminate the 
schedule, and the leader the Detention Bears was 
awarded the victory. Ten of the teams were then or- 
ganized into a so-called National League, and the re- 
maining ten were dubbed the American League. A 
schedule which terminated on September 15, was drawn 
up for each of these leagues, and the winner in each 
played a series of five games to determine the Station 
championship. The Seventh Regiment (Radio School) 
was the winner in the National League, and the Third 
Regiment in the American League. In the series for 
the Station Championship the Seventh Regiment won. 

The Great Lakes swimmers Harry Hazelhurst, 
Perry McGillvray, Buddie Wallen, Bayard McClana- 
han, Davy Jones, Johnny Bennett, Zeke Laubis, Charlie 
Stevens, Clark Leach, Jack Searle, Bill Vosburgh, Ed- 
die Reeves and Frank Pickel gathered practically 
everything worth while during the season of 1918. The 
outdoor championship of the United States, and also 
of the Central A. A. U. were won by large margins. 
Perry McGillvray established three new world's rec- 



GREAT LAKES' ATHLETIC RECORD 161 

ords as follows: the 150 yd. back stroke, 1 148-4/5; 220 
yd. straight-away, 2:21-2/5; 100 yd. backstroke, 1:07- 
4/5. Buddie Wallen established two new world's rec- 
ords the 440 yd. straightaway, 5 min., 25 sec. ; and the 
880 yd., ii min. 27-1/5 sec. McGillvray also did the 
100 yd. backstroke in 1:15, a new Central A. A. U. 
record. 

In the indoor swimming championships of the United 
States, the Great Lakes swimmers, exclusive of the 
water polo, won three firsts, three seconds, and one 
third; the Illinois Athletic Club, three firsts, one sec- 
ond, and two thirds ; and the Chicago Athletic Associa- 
tion, won the plunge for distance, was second in the 
diving and in the 200 yd. breast stroke, and came in 
third in the 50 yd., 400 yd., and 500 yd. relay races. 

The water polo championships, which required draw- 
ings just before the time set for play, were drawn for 
position two days before the event. When it came time 
for the Great Lakes Second team to play, a measles 
quarantine barred several of the players from contest- 
ing and a re-drawing was requested. The Illinois 
Athletic Club agreed to this, but the Chicago Athletic 
Association objected. Great Lakes and the Illinois 
Athletic Club protested playing in what was con- 
sidered a farce, as the Chicago Athletic Associa- 
tion team would receive second place without hav- 
ing to play. The President of the National A. A. U, 
upheld the contention of Great Lakes and a re- 
drawing was ordered. The Chicago Athletic Associ- 
ation would not consent, however, and Great Lakes 
and the Illinois A. C. played each other, the Illi- 
nois A. C. team winning by a score of 5 to 2. The 
executive committee of the National A. A. U. ruled that 



1 62 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

this was illegal and gave first and second place in water 
polo to the Chicago Athletic Association, and with it the 
National Indoor Swimming Championship. This de- 
cision Commander Kaufman accepted without further 
protest. 

Boxing and wrestling brought their share of cham- 
pionships in 1918. In the National Wrestling Cham- 
pionships, Great Lakes was barely defeated by the Gary 
Y. M. C. A. Great Lakes won both the boxing and 
wrestling championships in the Central A. A. U. boxing 
tournament. The novice wrestlers gathered in the 
championship in the American Amateur Federation. 

Both boxing and wrestling went strong at Great 
Lakes during 1918, weekly shows, held in the ravine 
amphitheatre during the summer months and in one of 
the huge drill halls during the winter, drawing thou- 
sands of enthusiastic visitors as well as the bluejackets. 
Lieutenant "Jack" Kennedy, the supervising officer, had 
as his staff of instructors such boxers as Jack Kunovski, 
Eddie Nearing, Maurie Flynn, Morris Bloom, Billie 
Walters, Teddy Hayes, Ritchie Mitchell, Pal Moore, 
Cal Delaney, Eddie Stanton, Stewart Donnelly, Jack 
Bunk, Jack Heinan, Denny and Jack O'Keefe, and 
Tommy White. The staff of wrestling instructors in- 
cluded Ben Reuben, Jack Gruppel, Herb Singer, Sam 
Vernon, Al Forst, Don Frazee, Joe Stecher, Louis Natt 
and Arnold Minkley. 

It was these men who developed the young boxers 
and wrestlers who represented their regiments and 
schools in the inter-regimental matches which made up 
the weekly shows. They developed such clever youths 
as Schmader, Dowd, Kendall, Johnson, Gavin, Corbin, 



GREAT LAKES' ATHLETIC RECORD 163 

Henry, Craddock, Doyle, Gladstone, Favor, Karl, 
Miller, Emro, Bushe, Powers, Gilbert, Counzelman, 
Witt, Romero, Stein, McGuire, Ford, Swartz, Mazurka, 
Neu, Bryant, Burke, Kelley, Shields, Dahl, Gall, Pikter, 
Lindgren, Frigher, Richi, Hodja, Cohen, Wicker and 
Farr. 

The rule that was followed, without exception, was 
to allow no professional to enter the ring, and to permit 
no contests in localities where boxing was illegal, unless 
specific permission was granted for such bouts by the 
city officials. 

The popularity of boxing at Great Lakes was vouched 
for by such fighters as Jess Willard, Jack Dempsey, Jim 
Corbett, Bat Nelson, Eddie McGoorty, Charlie White 
and Ad Wolgast, all of whom were frequent specta- 
tors at the ringside, and sometimes acted as referees. 

During 1918, track athletics came to the front. The 
Great Lakes track team won the Central A. A. U. out- 
door track championships, was runner up in the Central 
A. A. U. Indoor Track Meet, and won the Army-Navy 
championships in the Senior National Track Meet held 
at Great Lakes. 

For the Central A. A. U. Indoor Track Meet, held 
at Great Lakes on April 6, 1918, the Station constructed 
one of the finest indoor tracks in the history of the 
games. This was an oval board track, 15 ft. wide and 
but six laps to the mile, with a central straightaway 
20- ft. wide and so long that it was possible, for the first 
time in track history, to hold the 120 yd. high and low 
hurdles indoors. This track, with its oval turns, was 
constructed in the Camp Dewey's 6oo-ft. drill hall by 
bluejacket carpenters, under the direction of Chief 



i6 4 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Carpenter C. J. Lishman and Frank E. Cox of the Pub- 
lic Works Department. The seating capacity was 10,- 
ooo. 

By September, 1918, Great Lakes had completed its 
wonderful outdoor track field, consisting of a quarter- 
mile oval, a 220 yd. straightaway, and the now famous 
440 yd. straightaway. On this field were conducted 
the National Outdoor Senior and Junior track cham- 
pionships. Both of these championships were won by 
the Chicago Athletic Association, which was fortunate 
in having several of its best point winners furloughed 
from the various service camps. Great Lakes won sec- 
ond place in the Senior Championships, and Pelham 
Bay, the big Naval Training Station just outside of 
New York, won second place in the Junior Champion- 
ships. A considerable number of Army and Navy 
camps were represented, but as Great Lakes scored 
more points in the Senior Championships than any of 
these, Great Lakes was awarded the National Service 
Championship. This was in spite of the fact that the 
meet was held during the period in which the influenza 
epidemic struck Great Lakes. The influenza and minor 
injuries robbed Great Lakes for the time being of such 
athletes as Andy Ward, National 100 and 220 yd. cham- 
pion, Eddie Fall, conference mile champion, Benz, a con- 
sistent point winner in the shot-put and discus, and sev- 
eral lesser athletes who had been depended upon to 
gather a point here and there. 

Franz Marceau was in charge of the track athletes. 
The Great Lakes point winners in the National meet 
were: Arthur Henke, winner of the Senior and Junior 
100 yd. events; Murchison, winner of the Senior 220 
yd. event ; Hause, winner of the Senior 440 yd. hurdles ; 



GREAT LAKES' ATHLETIC RECORD 165 

Muller, winner of the Senior discus event; Allman, sec- 
ond and fourth in the Senior 56-lb. shot-put ; Knoureck, 
second in the Senior pole vault; Gilfellan, second in the 
Senior discus event; and Reidel, fourth in the 120 yd. 
hurdles. 

In the Junior National Meet the Great Lakes point 
winners were Hause, Boeddecker, Windrow, Allman, 
Wilkins, Leffler and Arthur Henke. It was this latter 
stripling who, although sick when he went on to the 
field, sent word to Commander Kaufman that he would 
run anyhow and do his best for Great Lakes. He won 
the Junior and Senior 100 yd. dash, and in winning the 
latter proved his superiority over the best in the coun- 
try. For several months after the meet Henke was a 
dangerously ill sailor. 

This National A. A. U. meet, held at Great Lakes 
on September 21, 22 and 23, 1918, was one of the 
greatest track meets ever held in America. Over in 
the sand-pit a lithe aviator from Canada was gracefully 
leaping over the jumping standards; down near the 
bleachers a husky marine from the South was swinging 
a metal disc; while on the cinder track a Great Lakes 
sailor, a doughboy from the Far West, and a civilian 
from the Atlantic seaboard were sprinting for the finish 
tape at breakneck speed. This is a characteristic pic- 
ture of the athletic field at Great Lakes, when track and 
field athletes, representing every section of the country, 
collaborated in their efforts to give Great Lakes the 
distinction of entertaining the greatest "made in 
America" athletic carnival. 

More than seven hundred service and civilian athletes 
participated in the three-day event. Their jerseys bore 
the colors or design of nineteen civilian athletic organi- 



1 66 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

zations, eighteen Army and Navy camps, and six uni- 
versities. There may have been other athletic meets 
held in America during which more new records were 
established, or in which there were a greater number 
of contestants, but, in the general summary, this 1918 
meet eclipsed all of its predecessors. The military note 
predominated. According to such amateur athletic 
potentates as Charles A. Dean, President of the Nat- 
ional A. A. U., Frederick Rubien and Justice Bartow 
Weekes, no athletic affair of such magnitude had ever 
been so smoothly conducted. Not one protest, accident, 
or mishap of any kind blemished the record of the three- 
day competition which is a tribute to the efficiency of 
the athletic system established at Great Lakes. 

The Great Lakes football team of 1918 played a stiff 
schedule of games without a single defeat, proving that 
it had no superior in the country, either among the 
service or the university teams. It won victories over 
Iowa, Illinois, Purdue, Rutgers, Annapolis and the 
Mare Island Marines. 

This team was in the early part of the season coached 
by Herman P. Olcott and Frank Haggerty, and later 
by Lieut. C. J. McReavy, U. S. N., assisted by Dana 
Morrison. Its personnel was composed of men who 
had previously represented some college team and in- 
cluded Emmett Keefe, Notre Dame, (Captain) ; J. P. 
Combe, George Tech; H. A. Ivy, Lawrence High, 
Kas. ; F. W. Swanekamp, Superior High, Wis. ; L. B. 
Andrew, Kansas Manual Training Normal; J. R. Col- 
lins, Bayler Institute, Tex. ; H. E. Welch, Toledo High ; 
V. R. Richards, Alma College, Mich ; H. W. Bliss, Ohio 
State; J. L. Doherty, Cincinnati Subs; Bert Griffith, 
St. Louis ; C. L. Paulsen, Kansas State Normal ; W. M. 



GREAT LAKES' ATHLETIC RECORD 167 

Byers, Ames, Iowa; Charlie Bachman, Notre Dame; 
Paddy Driscoll, Northwestern; Harry A. Eilson, 
Northwestern; Jimmy Counzelman, Washington U; 
C. G. Langenstein, Freeport High; E. J. Abrahamson, 
Lawrence College, Wis. ; W. O. McClellan, West Vir- 
ginia Wesleyan ; H. S. Lauer, University Detroit ; Harry 
A. Erickson, St. Olaf; F. R. Willaman, Ohio State; 
R. W. Williams, Kansas Normal; A. J. Reeves, Ottawa 
University, Kan.; B. H. Miller, Bridgewater High, 
Iowa; C. S. Bernard, Springfield Normal, Mo; Jerry 
Jones, Notre Dame; George Halas, Illinois; R. W. 
Reichle, Illinois; L. S. Bernard, Springfield Normal, 
Mo.; C. L. Ecklund, Minnesota University; C. H. 
Knight, Northwestern; J. W. Mosser, Penn. State; 
F. H. Thomas, Northwestern; Hugh M. Blacklock, 
Michigan Aggies; M. H. Conrad, Kalamazoo College, 

By virtue of its victories over Rutgers and Annapolis 
in the East and its undefeated contests with the middle 
western teams, including Illinois (7-0) this team was 
selected by the Tournament of Roses Committee of 
Pasadena, California, to play the best western (Coast) 
team for the football supremacy of the United States. 
The game was played at Pasadena, Cal., on New Years 
Day, 1919, Great Lakes being opposed by the strong 
team representing the Mare Island Marines (Cham- 
pions of West Coast by elimination contests). The 
score was 17-0 in Great Lakes favor, and, as a result 
of this, Mr. Walter Camp declared the Great Lakes 
Team to be the undisputed football champions of the 
United States. 

During the football season of 1918 fifteen regimental 
and school football teams were organized. A full sea- 
son was played and after a gruelling struggle the 



1 68 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

7th Regiment (Radio School) was declared the winner. 

The Great Lakes basketball team of 1918 played 
twenty-six games and defeated the following teams; 
Lake Forest; Bloomington; Wisconsin University (two 
games) ; Illinois; Northwestern (two games) ; Chicago; 
Northwestern College; James Millikin University; 
Bloomington Nationals; Bradley Polytechnical Inst. ; 
Knox College ; Fort Wayne, Ind. ; Detroit Rayls ; Kala- 
mazoo College; Warrensburg Normal School (two 
games); Camp Sherman; Rochester N. Y. Centrals; 
and the University of Buffalo. 

The personnel of the team comprises John Felmley, 
(Captain) Illinois University; Paddy Driscoll, North- 
western; George Halas, Illinois; "Con" Eklund, Minne- 
sota U; Bill Chandler, Wisconsin U; "Chief" Gurnoe, 
Carlisle; "Dizzy" Wassenaar, Grinnell College; Otto 
Steager, Northwestern College, Naperville ; R. A. West, 
James Millikin U; Ralph Allard, Iowa; Ed Zwicky, 
Madison High. Also Foley, Bill Johnson and Kircher 
participated in the first few games, but were mustered 
out in the early part of the season. The team was 
coached by Mr. Herman P. Olcott. 

During the basketball season, 1918-19, Great Lakes 
had seventeen regimental basketball teams, all fully 
equipped. These regimental teams were divided into 
two leagues, one playing on Mondays and Thursdays 
of each week, while the other played on Tuesdays and 
Fridays. The leagues were named from the days they 
played, Monthurs and Tuef ris. These individual teams 
were made up of excellent material and the games were 
played before great crowds of bluejackets. The team 
representing Aviation (i5th Regiment) was declared 
the winner of the Monthur league and the 3rd Regi- 



GREAT LAKES' ATHLETIC RECORD 169 

ment of the Tuefri league. These representative teams 
then battled for the Station supremacy in a series of 
three games, Aviation winning two straight games and 
thereby earning the title of Inter-regimental Champion's 
for the year. 

Great Lakes fostered many other branches of sport. 
It had a representative hockey team playing games in 
various cities, and boasted of the fastest ice skater in 
America Art Staff. It also had such skaters as Gold- 
stein, captain of the racing team; and Laury Peterson, 
of Chicago, and George Martin, of Milwaukee. It also 
had the greatest amateur ski jumper in America 
Einar Jensen. 

Cage ball, push ball and many like games were en- 
couraged. The Great Lakes soccer football team was 
victorious in the majority of its games. 

The latter part of 1918, the Patriotic Bowling As- 
sociation of Illinois presented Great Lakes with ten 
bowling alleys at a cost of $8000. These bowling alleys 
had no superior in the country. With their completion, 
bowling teams were organized and competed in various 
contents in the vicinity of Great Lakes. The men most 
responsible for the success of the bowling teams were: 
Sykes Thoma, Clark Moses, Frank Kafora, Oswald 
Carmichael, Frank Miller and Marshall Moore. 

This chapter would not be complete without a word 
of praise for the three men whose ability as trainers 
assisted so materially in keeping Great Lakes athletes 
on edge. These bluejackets were Fritz Zehner, K. F. 
Miller and Doc Rose. Nor should the men who worked 
unceasingly as assistants to Commander J. B. Kaufman 
in the Athletic Office be forgotten. This staff included 
Johnny Coolidge, Carl Hellberg, Bill Edwards, Chet 



170 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Faust, Babe Stillwell, Lute White, Otto Devinney, Dick 
Leahey, Savy Sedgewick, Cy Ward, Grut Waite, "Three 
I" Gillford, Fritz McNally, Bill McClellen, Happy 
Seigel, "Cautious" Hopkins, Norm Kline, Bill Ryan, 
King Kruegel and Charlie Kuhn. Several of these men 
became commissioned officers before the signing of the 
armistice. 



CHAPTER XI 

THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 

ONE of the prime requisites of military training 
is a high morale. There is no way in which 
this can be better accomplished than by afford- 
ing the men under arms the little comforts that they 
find missing in their transition from civil to military 
life. 

The Naval organization had a hundred and one ex- 
ceptionally important things to accomplish, therefore, 
it had not the time to provide for the smaller, although 
very important, details having to do with the personal 
welfare of the men. 

To the boys at Great Lakes there was a big, compre- 
hensible meaning in the word "Home." There was a 
difference between barrack-life and home-life that was 
hard to bridge it must be remembered that the major- 
ity of the boys at Great Lakes came more directly from 
the influence of their mothers than the recruits of any 
other branch of the service. To bridge this was the 
task of such organizations as the Illinois Auxiliary of 
the Naval Relief Society, the American Red Cross, the 
Y. W. C. A., the Y. M. C. A., the Jewish Welfare Board, 
the Lutheran Brotherhood, the Christian Science War 
Relief and Camp Welfare Committee, and the Knights 
of Columbus. 

171 



172 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

ILLINOIS AUXILIARY NAVY RELIEF SOCIETY 

The Navy Relief Society, organized in 1904 by Ad- 
miral George Dewey, has for its purpose the protection 
of the families and dependents of officers and enlisted 
men in the Marine Corps, the Navy, the Naval Militia 
and the Naval Reserve Force. 

If a man is lost at sea, or in any service whatever, 
leaving a family in need, the Navy Relief Society steps 
in and assumes financial responsibility, providing amply. 
Arrangements are made whereby children may continue 
their education. Widows are taught vocations, and 
employment is found for them. Helpless dependents 
are cared for until death. 

Quite naturally the Illinois Auxiliary of the Navy 
Relief Society, organized in 1916, with Great Lakes as 
its headquarters, was the largest chapter of the organi- 
zation during the war period. With a membership of 
approximately 25,000, it was the haven of refuge for 
thousands of bluejackets who were in distress, or whose 
dependents were. 

At the outbreak of the war it was apparent that the 
Navy Relief Society could not long survive, if it re- 
mained dependent alone upon its uniformed member- 
ship for support, so the aid of civilians was enlisted. 
The treasury of the Illinois Auxiliary received many 
thousands of dollars from entertainments, shows and 
other enterprises, but principally through the production 
of "Leave it to the Sailors," and "The Great Lakes' 
Revue," two theatrical or musical offerings in which 
only Great Lakes bluejacket talent appeared. 

The Illinois Auxiliary also operated the canteen and 
cafeteria on the Main Station at Great Lakes, which 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 173 

also produced a considerable amount of revenue for 
benevolent purposes. 

Other states in the Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Naval 
Districts had auxiliaries of the Navy Relief Society, 
but their activities were confined to their own states, 
and they operated through Washington. The Illinois 
Auxiliary also operated through Washington, but due 
to the fact that Great Lakes is located within its jurisdic- 
tion its field for local work during the war was of tre- 
mendous proportion. 

"How can the Navy Relief help but conflict with the 
American Red Cross?" was a question often asked. 
But there was no duplication of effort, because the func- 
tions of every one of the organizations in operation on 
or near Great Lakes was clearly defined, and each had its 
separate line of endeavor. The sweaters, comfort kits, 
and knitted articles donated by the Red Cross were dis- 
tributed at Great Lakes by the Navy Relief organiza- 
tion. 

The officers of the Illinois Auxiliary of the Navy 
Relief Society during the war period were: Honorary 
President, Captain William A. Moffett, U. S. N. ; Presi- 
dent, Mrs. W T . A. Moffett; First Vice-President, Lieu- 
tenant Commander James Grimes, U. S. N. ; Second 
Vice-President, Commander J. B. Kaufman, U. S. N. ; 
Third Vice-President, Lieutenant Commander C. S. 
Roberts, U. S. N. ; Fourth Vice-President, Lieutenant 
Commander A. C. Wilhelm, U. S. N. ; Civilian Vice- 
Presidents, John J. Mitchell, Charles Swift, Governor 
Lowden, Ambrose Cramer, John C. Pitcher, Archbishop 
Mundelain, Arthur T. Aldis, Byron T. Harvey, Mrs. 
J. Ogden Armour, J. Allen Haines, Charles H. Wacker, 
Miss Lolita Armour, H. C. Chatfield Taylor, Max Pam, 



174 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Ira J. Couch, and J. O. Hinkley; Secretary, Lieutenant 
J. D. Doyle, U. S. N. ; Assistant Executive Secretary, 
Lieutenant K. S. Goodman, U. S. N. R. F. (deceased) ; 
Corresponding Secretary, Ensign J. J. Boyle ; Recording 
Secretary, Chief Yeoman, R. J. Mason; Treasurer, 
Lieutenant Commander R. S. Robertson, U. S. N. ; As- 
sistant Treasurer, Chief Yeoman T. H. Durst; Mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee: Captain W. A. Mof- 
fett, Mrs. W. A. Moffett, J. J. Mitchell, Ambrose 
Cramer, A. T. Aldis, H. S. Chatfield-Taylor, Mrs. J. 
Ogden Armour, Lieutenant K. S. Goodman (deceased), 
Charles Swift, Phillip Warriner, Lieutenant Com- 
mander A. C. Wilhelm, Lieutenant Commander C. S. 
Roberts, Commander J. D. Willson, J. C. Pitcher, Byron 
T. Harvey, Chaplain Thompson, Commander J. B. 
Kaufman, Hugh Fisher, Lieutenant Commander Rut- 
ter, Ensign J. J. Boyle, Lieutenant G. C. Isbester, En- 
sign W. E. Clow, Jr., Lieutenant J. D. Doyle, Captain 
Odell, Lieutenant C. S. Dewey, Keene Addington, Lieu- 
tenant Commander R. S. Robertson, Chaplain Moore, 
Captain Evers, Ensign Abrams, R. J. Mason. 

THE AMERICAN RED CROSS 

At Great Lakes, as elsewhere through wide areas of 
territory in this and other countries, the work of the 
American Red Cross was the filling in of the little fis- 
sures bound to show in such an emergency, adding a 
humanizing touch here and there in order to create a 
condition smoother to the understanding and sympa- 
thies than would otherwise have been the case. 

Operating within the loosely defined limits set for it 
by the Navy Department, conforming in every respect 
to its rules and regulations, these organizations found it 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 175 

entirely feasible to add to the happiness of the officers 
and men at Great Lakes, to contribute to their material 
and spiritual comfort. 

Early in the spring of 1918 the American Red Cross 
saw the need of a convalescent home in the section at 
Great Lakes occupied by the Hospital Group. The site 
was selected in conference with the Station officials, 
ground was broken, construction begun, and on June 
12, 1918, the much needed Red Cross House was com- 
pleted and put to immediate use. 

The Red Cross House provided both bed and board 
for the relatives and friends who visited the patients. 
It contained a naval hospital canteen, with the necessary 
offices and conveniences. A large assembly room, with 
a stage for theatrical and other entertainments, was one 
of its most notable features. In this room many dra- 
matic, musical and intellectual diversions, as well as 
games of many kinds, were provided for the men con- 
valescing from accident or illness. Stationery was fur- 
nished in large quantities to give these sailors the chance 
so eagerly seized to write letters home. More than 
10,000 letters were mailed out of the Convalescent Home 
every month. 

During the influenza epidemic, in the early autumn 
of 1918, the Red Cross House provided shelter and com- 
fort for hundreds of mothers, fathers and other close 
relatives of dangerously ill sailors. More than a hun- 
dred such people, called to Great Lakes by the urgency 
of the illness, were provided for every night. The cots 
provided for them were all numbered and a careful reg- 
ister was kept, so that any summons from the hospital 
could be quickly met. Other services rendered to the 
relatives of sick men included the making of arrange- 



i 7 6 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

ments for trains and sleeping berths, and the provision 
and operation of automobiles to carry them back and 
forth between the hospital and the railway stations. 

To assist in the care of the hundreds of patients at 
the Hospital, the American Red Cross sent out to the 
Station seventy-five of its own nurses, while thirty more 
were used to serve the urgent needs in the families of 
officers and enlisted men living in the surrounding towns. 
It also supplied, within a few hours after the request, 
five motor ambulances to aid in carrynig the stricken 
sailors from the camps to the Hospital. 

In reference to this work, Mr. Charles T. Atkinson, 
who became Field Director of the American Red Cross 
at Great Lakes on September i, 1918, received the fol- 
lowing letter from the office of the Commandant, signed 
by Lieutenant Commander J. M. Grimes: "I avail my- 
self of this opportunity to express to you and to your 
associates in the conduct of the affairs of the American 
Red Cross at the Hospital and at the Training Station, 
my profound appreciation of the splendid cooperation 
extended by your organization during the period of the 
recent epidemic of influenza. You cannot realize how 
timely and how valuable this assistance was in our ef- 
forts to control and suppress this epidemic, properly 
care for the patients and their relatives, and otherwise 
meet conditions of an unprecedented character. I was 
particularly impressed by the manner in which the 
American Red Cross anticipated every want of the men 
and their relatives, and the prompt, effective and satis- 
factory manner in which they were supplied. We are 
under a debt of everlasting gratitude to you and your 
associates, and at this time I shall have to content my- 
self with a simple expression of our sincere thanks." 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 177 

Still another activity was carried on by the American 
Red Cross in connection with the U. S. Naval Hospital 
at Great Lakes. Beginning in August, 1917, the Lake 
Forest Branch of the Chicago Chapter of the American 
Red Cross took upon itself the work of supplying the 
hospital with thousands of surgical articles, all of which 
were greatly needed and hardly to be had, owing to the 
general demand. During 1917, the Lake Forest Branch 
provided 6000 sponges, 1750 compresses, and hundreds 
of rolls, laparotomy pads, drains and the like. This 
work was continued through 1918, but with materials 
furnished by the Navy. During September and Octo- 
ber, 1918, the Lake Forest Branch sent to Great Lakes 
2000 masks for the better control of the influenza epi- 
demic. 

In addition, the Chicago Navy Auxiliary of the Amer- 
ican Red Cross sent to Great Lakes nearly 20,000 hos- 
pital garments and 300,000 surgical dressings of all 
kinds. 

Great Lakes received recruits in no small number 
from the Southern States of the Mississippi Valley, even 
from as far as the western boundary of Texas. These 
young men came to the Station with no preparation for 
the rigors of a northern winter, and the winter of 
1917-18 was unusually bitter and prolonged. There- 
fore, it is not over estimation to state that the Red Cross 
supply of knitted goods prevented much illness and great 
suffering. The grand total of sweaters, socks, helmets, 
mufflers and wristlets given out, all knitted goods, was 
close to 200,000. Close to 60,000 comfort kits were 
also given out. This was the record of the Department 
of Military Relief. Complementing this, the Depart- 
ment of Civilian Relief provided nearly 20,000 garments 



178 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

to the families of sailors living in the vicinity of Great 
Lakes. 

In the late summer of 1918 still another phase was 
added to the activities of the American Red Cross at 
Great Lakes. This was the work of the Home Service 
branch of the organization in caring for the dependents 
of the men in the service. It was carried on under the 
direction of Mr. L. H. Stafford, Associate Field Di- 
rector in charge of Home Service in the Bureau of 
Civilian Relief. His assistants were Mr. D. H. Mc- 
Gregor, in charge of the Main Station and of Incoming 
Detention ; Mr. J. W. Jorgenson, in charge of the Avia- 
tion Camp ; Mr. S. E. Spencer, in charge of Camp Luce ; 
Mr. A. J. F. McBean, in charge of Camp Paul Jones; 
Mr. P. J. Hoffman, in charge of Camp Dewey; and Mr. 
U. S. Villars, in charge of Camp Perry. The work of 
these men was to free the minds of the sailors of any 
cause for worry regarding their families. They ex- 
tended hearty invitations to every man in the service to 
come to them with their home troubles. With more 
than 3000 chapters of the Red Cross throughout 
the country it was found possible in every case, 
after verifying the statements of the men, to aid 
the loved ones at home. During September, 1918, 
the first month that the service was in operation, 
five hundred worthy families were relieved; in Oc- 
tober, one thousand; and in November, one thou- 
sand four hundred not as a charity, but as a duty. 

A recruit in Camp Farragut, for instance, after hear- 
ing the invitation of the Assistant Field Director de- 
tailed to Incoming Detention to come forward with his 
troubles, remarked rather casually that he had left his 
wife with only a dollar or two, but it would be all right 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 179 

as he would send her his pay every Saturday night. 
The question of family allotments was, of course, a 
somewhat complicated one, demanding much book-keep- 
ing in Washington and elsewhere, so the field direction 
knew that it might be several weeks before that par- 
ticular wife received any money. As a result, she was 
provided for through the chapter of the Red Cross in 
her locality before she had come to want. 

Mr. Julian R. Steward was the Field Director of the 
American Red Cross at Great Lakes up to September 
i, 1918, when he was relieved by Mr. Charles T. At- 
kinson. Mr. W. D. Benjamin was the first Assistant 
Field Director, but he was relieved in August, 1918, by 
Mr. H. W. Patterson. At the same time, Mr. Charles 
G. Bolte became Associate Field Director in immediate 
charge of the hospital activities. His assistants were 
Mr. George H. Dunham, in charge of the field service, 
and Mr. Vern P. Farrer, in charge of supplies. 

THE Y. w. c. A. 

The work of the Y. W. C. A. in helping to bridge the 
gap between the home and the training camp was of 
considerable importance at Great Lakes. In its two 
commodious and delightfully cozy and homelike Hostess 
Houses was found that touch of femininity so utterly 
lacking in the military orderliness of the barracks. 
These houses were a haven for young sailors as well as 
for the women folk who came to visit them. 

The Hostess Houses of the War Work Council of the 
National Board of the Y. W. C. A. solved the problem 
which arose in every camp and cantonment throughout 
the country that of meeting the needs of the civilian 
relatives and friends of the men. In August, 1917, 



i8o THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Captain Moffett asked for a Hostess House, to be 
erected near the Main Gate. This structure, built along 
the lines of a California bungalow, was opened to the 
sailors of Great Lakes and their relatives and friends 
on January i, 1918. It consisted of a large enclosed 
porch, a combination living and tea room, a woman's rest 
room, a nursery and an emergency room. The wide en- 
closed porch or sun parlor gave the Hostess House a 
strikingly comfortable and home-like appearance. All 
the rooms were furnished with exquisite taste, and the 
wicker furniture the kind that looks cool and comfort- 
able was arranged in such a way that groups of friends 
could talk and visit without being disturbed by other 
groups. Great fireplaces added to the coziness during 
the winter months. 

By the early spring of 1918 this Hostess House had 
become so popular among the sailors and civilian vis- 
itors that Captain Moffett sent in an urgent request that 
it be enlarged to more than twice its size, so as to include 
a large cafeteria and greatly to enlarge the other ac- 
commodations. Furthermore, he requested that at 
least one other Hostess House be built, for the accom- 
modation of the sailors and civilian visitors in Camps 
Dewey and Perry. Both these requests were carried 
out, and the second Hostess House, quite different in 
architecture, was ready for occupancy on July 10, 1918, 
near the main gate of Camp Dewey. 

It would be hard to enumerate all the needs of civilian 
visitors which were met by the Hostess Houses. They 
were not only the meeting places for thousands upon 
thousands of sailors and civilian visitors, but places 
where women visitors could take their troubles and have 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 181 

them solved. If they found it difficult to locate a son, 
husband or brother in the multiplicity of training camps, 
they came to the secretaries of the Hostess Houses for 
help. Its battery of telephones was kept almost con- 
stantly busy locating sailors and connecting them up 
with relatives or friends. Sometimes, after a futile 
search of many hours, the visitors who came to the 
Hostess Houses succeeded in locating their men almost 
immediately. 

The number of visitors taken care of by the Hostess 
Houses average more than 10,000 on the regular weekly 
review days, more than 3000 on Sundays, and between 
six and seven hundred on ordinary days. It may be well 
to state here that although Wednesdays and Sundays 
were designated as Visitors' Days at Great Lakes, any 
civilians coming from a considerable distance to see par- 
ticular men were admitted on any day. Such visitors 
were usually directed to the Hostess Houses as the most 
likely places in which to connect up with the sailors they 
wished to see. As a result, the secretaries of the Host- 
ess Houses acted as a "get-together" medium with fine 
results. Nearly every day more than a hundred sailors 
were located and connected up by telephone with visiting 
relatives or friends. This meant a great many tele- 
phone calls, often as many as twelve calls being required 
to locate one man. 

Every week the Hostess Houses received anywhere 
from fifty to one hundred inquiries from relatives of 
sailors as to rooms available in the neighboring towns : 
These women were sent to responsible parties who had 
been appointed to take charge of such work in the sur- 
rounding communities. 



1 82 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Many of the sailors took the opportunity while in the 
Hostess Houses to write home. The stationery used 
averaged close to 1500 sheets per day. 

The nurseries in the Hostess Houses, which were very 
attractively and practically furnished, were used to their 
capacity. They were often the meeting places of a 
young mother and her sailor husband, who there saw, 
for the first time, his little son or daughter. 

The Hostess Houses became the scene for many wed- 
dings, some of which were rather elaborate affairs, with 
many flowers, music and even a wedding breakfast. 
One of the weddings was most unexpected, as it took 
place in one corner of the rest room without any fore- 
warning. The father of the bride was the minister, 
and two of the hostesses served as the necessary wit- 
nesses. 

A typical Sunday morning scene in one of the Hostess 
Houses might be summed up as follows a sailor stand- 
ing before a big fireplace popping corn, while many 
others were writing letters or reading, and at the same 
time being amused by a little three-year-old girl who was 
visiting at the House that day. Throughout the huge 
living room and sun porch were scattered families, 
many of whom had come long distances to spend the 
day with their "boy." And there, also, were a couple of 
families waiting for the hour or so during which they 
could visit the hospital. 

During the evenings, when all the civilian visitors had 
left the Station, the Hostess Houses belonged just to 
the sailors. Then a group of them, among whom might 
be found a number of nurses who had left the Hospital 
for a short period of recreation, could be found around 
the piano, playing and singing. 




Secretaries of the American Red Cross at Great Lakes 

Interior of the Jolly Tar Club 
The Reading Room at Red Cross House 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 183 

The Hostess Houses were not places where formal 
entertainment was provided for the men, since other 
organizations on the Station were ably organized , for 
such work. The Hostess Houses were especially meant 
to provide all the home comforts and to be, in the truest 
sense, just a "bit of home on the Station." However, 
from time to time, special invitations were extended to 
the Naval nurses for informal social affairs and an ef- 
fort was made to make that splendid group of woman 
workers feel perfectly at home in the Hostess Houses. 

The Hostess Houses were also used by many parents 
and relatives summoned to Great Lakes on account of 
the serious illness of their men. They used the Hostess 
Houses as home, sometimes for many days or weeks, 
where help, comfort and sympathy were given them. 
One day during a cold, early spring, a poor mother, 
summoned from her farm in Northern Minnesota on 
account of the dangerous illness of her son, arrived at 
the hospital in a calico dress and a gray sweater. The 
medical staff of the hospital sent her to the Hostiess 
House to be cared for. For the week or ten days trrat 
it was necessary for her to be near her son until the 
danger point was passed the Hostess House provided 
her meals and every other home comfort during the 
time she could not be at the hospital. A comfortable 
room was found for her in a nearby community. This 
was only one of hundreds of instances. 

During the influenza epidemic in the early autumn of 
1918 the Hostess Houses did tremendous work in mak- 
ing conditions more comfortable for the women who 
were called to Great Lakes by the dangerous illness of 
their sons and husbands. Many bereaved ones were 
taken care of. The following was a typical instance: 



184 

Early one morning a telephone message came from In- 
coming Detention asking that a Hostess House secre- 
tary come for a mother who had just arrived from Ne- 
braska to find that her son had died during the night. 
She was taken to the Hostess House after all arrange- 
ments had been made for shipping the body back home. 
Then, while she was made comfortable in the rest room, 
information was secured as to her train connections, 
and later in the day she was taken to the hospital by the 
Hostess to see her boy before he was shipped home, and, 
finally, she was safely put on her train in Chicago. 

The enlarging of the Hostess House on the Main Sta- 
tion, designed to more than double its capacity, was fin- 
ished just in time to be used to great advantage during 
the influenza epidemic. The number of relatives and 
friends of stricken sailors who had to be cared for on 
the Station both day and night was so great that the Red 
Cross Home was inadequate alone to meet it. There- 
fore, the two Hostess Houses were utilized to care for 
at least half the immediate relatives. This meant that, 
when the epidemic was at its worst, nearly one hundred 
persons a night were accommodated by the Hostess 
Houses. Provisions were made whereby at any mo- 
ment, day or night, relatives could be rushed to the 
Hospital in automobiles. In addition to twelve cots and 
bedding for the same, provided by the War Camp Com- 
munity Service through Mr. Charles Moore, most of the 
cots and bedding needed were loaned by the Station. 
In addition to the service rendered in the two Hostess 
Houses, the Y. W. C. A. forces were asked to take 
charge of similar work in Incoming Detention, and did 
the work well and effectively. 

Not only did the forces of the Hostess Houses pro- 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 185 

vide every comfort possible for the relatives of the sick 
men, but they were able to do much for the sailors on the 
Station, particularly as all the Y. M. C. A. buildings 
had been turned into sick bays. All the men on the 
Station were in quarantine during the influenza epi- 
demic, and the Hostess Houses were the only places 
where the men detained on the Station could gather out- 
side their barracks. The Hostess Houses were there- 
fore thronged, and no attempt was spared to make them 
at "home" in every sense of the word. 

During the epidemic period the Hostess Houses dis- 
tributed to the sick bays throughout the Station from 
thirty to forty gallons of egg-nog per day, besides many 
cases of fruits, and especially tempting meals asked for 
by the doctors for particular patients. 

In appreciation of this work Lieutenant Commander 
Grimes, Acting Commandant, wrote the following letter 
to Miss Frances Greenough, Directing Hostess at Great 
Lakes : 

My dear Miss Greenough: 

I desire to tender to you an expression of our pro- 
found appreciation of the splendid service rendered by 
you and your associates at the Y. W. C. A. Hostess 
Houses during the period of the recent epidemic of in- 
fluenza. You cannot realize how invaluable the coop- 
eration extended in this way developed as a result of 
the epidemic. I was particularly impressed with the 
manner in which you and your fellow workers, and 
the organization generally, anticipated and met with 
promptitude the most urgent necessities of the patients 
and their relatives during this trying period. We shall 
always feel under a debt of gratitude for the many 
kindly services performed at that time, and I shall have 
to now content myself with offering you a simple ex- 
pression of our sincere thanks. 



1 86 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 
Captain Moffett wrote: 

My dear Miss Greenough: 

I wish to express to you and to the ladies in charge 
of the two Hostess Houses my appreciation and heart- 
felt thanks for the devoted and efficient service which 
your organization rendered during the recent influenza 
epidemic. You may be quite sure that the officers and 
enlisted men of Great Lakes will always gratefully re- 
member what you have done, not only in taking care of 
the sick and convalescent, but in helping to lighten the 
suffering of the parents and relatives of the men who 
were desperately ill. The untiring work of the ladies 
in charge of the Hostess Houses have been an inspira- 
tion to all of us, for which I can never really adequately 
express my admiration. 

The staff of women who directed the Hostess Houses 
at Great Lakes during the war period were: Mrs. 
Lawrence W. Viles, Chairman of the Hostess House 
Committee ; and Mrs. Ralph Poole, Mrs. Ezra Warner, 
Jr., Mrs. Chauncy Blair, Mrs. Frank Hibbard, Mrs. A. 
Watson Armour, Mrs. Charles Hutchinson and Mrs. 
Martin Ryerson. 

The Directing Hostess of the two houses at Great 
Lakes was Miss Frances P. Greenough. Her assist- 
ants were: Mrs. George Magoun, Miss Mary Ken- 
nedy, Miss Miriam Heermans, Miss Mable Dunham, 
Mrs. Carrie Green, Mrs. Fred Kitch, Miss Catherine 
Stewart and Mrs. George Carlson. 

THE Y. M. C. A. 

Of all the Welfare Organizations which operated at 
Great Lakes the Y. M. C. A. had by far the largest staff 
of workers and the largest number of buildings. It was 
a far cry from the Bible classes, the night schools and 
the gymnasiums of civil life to war activities, but the 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 187 

Y. M. C. A. spanned the gap at Great Lakes and found 
a fertile field in which to work. 

Nations at war must, in the rush of preparation, over- 
look to some extent the small things that go to make for 
the comfort of the fighting forces comforts without 
which the men would be at a serious loss. Admittedly, 
one of the prime requisites of military training is a 
high morale. There is no way in which this can be ac- 
complished better than by affording the men under arms 
the little comforts that they find missing in their transi- 
tion from civil to military life. 

This was the main task of the Y. M. C. A. at Great 
Lakes, the work that it set itself to accomplish. The 
first of the Y. M. C. A. buildings constructed at 
Great Lakes, largely by the labor of the secretaries 
themselves, was the first Y. M. C. A. building erected 
for distinctly wartime work in any of the camps or can- 
tonments in the United States. Additional Y. M. C. A. 
buildings were erected as Great Lakes expanded. At 
the time the armistice was signed the Y. M. C. A. build- 
ings were eighteen in number, one for each regimental 
unit. 

The style of the various Y. M. C. A. buildings varied 
according to the nature of the regimental units in which 
they were located. In the Detention regiments, for in- 
stance, the buildings were smaller than in the regular 
training regiments, because in the latter the men were 
allowed to gather in larger groups. 

All of the buildings, however, were provided with a 
platform or stage for entertainments and lectures, with 
equipment for moving pictures and lantern slides. Pi- 
anos, victrolas and mechanical organs were placed in 
each building for the use of the sailors and the enter- 



1 88 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

tainers who came to amuse them. Games of many sorts 
were scattered throughout the buildings, and the amount 
of equipment, both for indoor and outdoor groups, was 
very large. 

In each building there were excellent facilities for 
reading purposes. During 1917, the Y. M. C. A. secre- 
taries secured and distributed practically all the books 
and magazines used in the various camps. Various 
agencies in Chicago and along the North Shore gath- 
ered the books and magazines and sent them to Great 
Lakes for distribution by the Y. M. C. A. Among these 
organizations, special credit is due the Collegiate Period- 
ical League, which organized the gathering of material 
in Chicago, and to the Illinois Motor Corps, which trans- 
ported this material from Chicago to Great Lakes. Also 
various clubs, churches, and many individuals con- 
tributed their bit. Many thousands of books were 
placed on the shelves in each Y. M. C. A. building, and 
in nearly all the barracks in Incoming Detention. These 
collections of books were rotated from one building to 
another by the Y. M. C. A. secretaries, so that fresh 
reading matter was constantly at hand. 

The meeting of emergencies was one of the features 
of the Y. M. C. A. work at Great Lakes. When the in- 
fluenza epidemic struck Great Lakes, the Y. M. C. A. 
buildings were turned into sick bays, and the Y. M. C. 
A. secretaries assisted the medical authorities day and 
night. Of the Y. M. C. A. secretaries, Leslie Selby, 
W. D. Brenneman, H. H. Mahin and W. B. Been died 
of the fever, and many others were exhausted by con- 
tinuous service. 

The Y. M. C. A. work at Great Lakes was divided 
into four principal divisions. To the sailors themselves 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 189 

the Social Division was perhaps the most popular. The 
Y. M. C. A. provided them, first, with a place where the 
hours not taken up by drill and study might be passed 
pleasantly. At all times men were to be found at the 
long tables reading or writing letters home. 

While some attention was given to athletics, the ac- 
tivities of the Navy in this branch of entertainment and 
development reduced the Y. M. C. A. work to a great 
extent. 

An important department of the "Y" activity was the 
work of the educational division. Classes in mathe- 
matics, English, French, geography and spelling were 
conducted. Every week members of the faculties of 
nearby colleges and universities gave lectures on sub- 
jects closely related to Navy life. Every evening groups 
of young sailors could be found in secluded corners, 
deeply engrossed in study, with an experienced instructor 
giving individual attention to each. 

The Religious Department worked intensively among 
the men, and thus upheld this side of the triangle. Re- 
ligious meetings were held during the week in all of 
the Y. M. C. A. buildings, and even in the barracks 
when the men desired them. Class leaders who had 
proved particularly strong were brought in from Chi- 
cago and the towns along the North Shore. Each of 
these leaders had to volunteer for four months' service, 
and had to prove his ability in keeping the men inter- 
ested in the Bible Class work. Not infrequently, a class 
leader would follow a company of men from the first 
Sunday in Incoming Detention until its members were 
sent away to sea. 

Under the head of the business department came the 
work of keeping the buildings well-supplied with the 



i 9 o THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

necessary equipment to carry on the work, and also the 
operation of the Y. M. C. A. canteens. These canteens 
supplied the wants which could not be obtained at other 
canteens and Ships' Stores at Great Lakes. These 
wants, however, were very few, such as postage stamps, 
money orders, money belts and camera supplies. A sort 
of banking business was also carried on, the men leaving 
surplus money with the secretaries and withdrawing it 
as they pleased. The men were constantly urged to 
save a part of their money. 

From June I, 1917, to May 31, 1918, 2822 Bibte Class 
sessions were held, with an attendance of 88,232 men; 
the number of religious meetings was 1092, with an at- 
tendance of 524,169 men; more than 20,000 Scriptures 
were distributed ; the personal Christian interviews num- 
bered 8520; and the personal decisions for Christ were 
1663. 

During this same period 280 educational lectures were 
delivered, attended by 37,856 men; the educational 
classes had an attendance of 4082 men ; and the number 
of books circulated was 166,503. The various enter- 
tainments numbered 596, with an attendance of 209,434, 
and 311 motion pictures were shown, with an attendance 
of 203,130 men. The money orders sold totaled $149,^ 
ooo. The number of letters written to home folks on 
Y. M. C. A. stationery was 2,464,218. 

Mr. M. H. Bickham was General Secretary of the 
Y. M. C. A. at Great Lakes. His headquarters staff 
consisted of W. R. Bimson, Executive Secretary ; Bert- 
W. Woltze, Personal Secretary ; J. L. Lobingier, Educa- 
tional Secretary ; Frank Torell, Religious Secretary ; and 
R. H. Risdon, Entertainment Secretary. 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 191 

THE KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS 

The work of the Knights of Columbus at Great Lakes 
began in August, 1917, with the arrival on the Station 
of Father William A. Murphy, appointed as Catholic 
chaplain of the post by Archbishop George William 
Mundelain, of Chicago. At the same time Thomas F. 
O'Connell became General Secretary of the K. of C. at 
Great Lakes. 

The work was new to both these men and there was 
no equipment, the Knights of Columbus at that time 
having just raised their first $1,000,000 for war work. 
Within a short time, however, the first K. of C. building 
was erected in the Fourth Regiment in Camp Perry 'and 
from then on there was reasonably clear sailing. 

At the time the armistice was signed there were seven 
K. of C. buildings at Great Lakes, located in Camps 
Perry, Farragut, Decatur, Barry and Luce. All of 
these buildings were equipped with victrolas, with an 
abundance of records; pianolas, with plenty of sheet 
music; moving picture machines; and thousands of 
books and current magazines. Several hundred thou- 
sand letters were written home on K. of C. stationery. 
The K. of C. buildings and equipment at Great Lakes 
cost more than $100,000. 

Each of the K. of C. buildings, aside from the con- 
venience for Sunday service, was fitted with a small 
chapel. The small chapel in the Camp Perry K. of C. 
building, which was used as headquarters, was furnished 
with a white and gold altar, golden-oak pews, green vel- 
vet Brussels carpet, four solid brass candlesticks and a 
solid crucifix, and statues of our Lady of the Lakes. 
This chapel was dedicated to Our Lady of the Lakes in 



1 92 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

memory of Mary Murphy, mother of the beloved Chap- 
lain. 

Among the big affairs, from a religious point of view, 
were the out-of-door military masses said during the 
summer in the big Farragut Ravine amphitheatre and 
in the open field. Thousands of sailors attended these 
services, and good speakers addressed them on their 
duty to God, country, home and their fellow men. 
Catholic services were held at nine different localities 
on Sundays, giving every boy an opportunity to carry 
out his religious obligations. 

Among the organizations, outside the ranks of the 
Knights of Columbus, which contributed greatly to the 
happiness of the sailors were: The Ladies' Catholic 
Benevolent Association ; the Catholic Women's League ; 
the North Shore Women's Catholic League ; the Evans- 
ton Catholic Women's League: the Associates of the 
West End Catholic Women's League ; the Rogers Park 
Catholic Women's Club: and the Catholic Women of 
Waukegan and the North Shore towns. The St. 
Thomas Aquinas Club of Chicago furnished hundreds 
of sweaters, helmets, socks and mufflers for personal 
distribution to the boys. 

During the influenza epidemic, both the chaplains 
and the secretaries found an almost overwhelming 
amount of work to do. They carried comfort and en- 
tertainment to the sailors in the hospital and sick bays, 
and sent word of their condition to parents and friends. 
The convalescing sailors were given oranges and other 
fruit, letters were written for them, and every wish 
they expressed was carried out when possible. The men 
at work knew no hours, as was the case throughout the 
entire Station, but stayed on the job as long as there 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 193 

was work to do, or as long as human nature could en- 
dure. 

The following letter was addressed to General Sec- 
retary O'Connell by Captain Moffett : 

I wish to express my appreciation of the valuable 
services you and your staff have rendered to this Sta- 
tion. I shall always feel a great deal of gratitude 
to the Knights of Columbus and their representa- 
tives for the many fine things they have done for 
the men at Great Lakes. I am sure I voice the opinion 
of all the officers and men when I say the devotion to 
duty displayed by all the civilian secretaries of the va- 
rious war activities represented here has been a constant 
source of satisfaction and inspiration to us all. 

Among the Catholic chaplains who worked at Great 
Lakes were: Father William A. Murphy, Father 
Thomas A. Canty, Father B. J. Sheil, Father Conroy of 
the Jesuit Order, Father I. Parius, Father B. McGuire, 
Father Thomas E. Burke, Father A. W. West, and Dr. 
J. P. Munday, L. L. D. 

The Knights of Columbus secretaries were : Thos. 
F. O'Connell, Frank P. Bowler, Raymond F. Hartman, 
Edward A. Chanel, John F. Crossin, Walter O. Rourke, 
William Grogan Roeder, Leo N. Thimmisch, Edmund 
Ruhnke, Charles E. May, Harold Leaf, William J. 
Leiser, Christ E. Murphy, Robert E. Neilan, Lee Spring- 
meier, Arthur W. Juergens, Thos. McMannimen, James 
Callahan, Joe Altenback, George Mahoney and Ernest 
Beaulieu. 

THE JEWISH WELFARE BOARD 

To obtain an adequate conception of the functions of 
the Jewish Welfare Board at Great Lakes, it is neces- 



i 9 4 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

sary to know something of the conditions existing be- 
fore its origin. When the war broke out, the country 
found the Y. M. C. A. long established and ready for 
war work. The K. of C. was also in a position to step 
in and take up work among the boys in khaki and blue. 
t The Jewish people, however, had not one organization 
fitted to represent Jewry in the training camps. It be- 
came necessary, therefore, to form a body of men who, 
through experience and reputation, were able to meet 
the specific needs of the Jewish men in the service. The 
fifteen leading Jewish organizations of America, repre- 
senting every line of Jewish thought, were banded to- 
gether to form the Jewish Welfare Board. In a very 
short time it was recognized by the Army and Navy 
heads on the same basis as the Y. M. C. A. and the K. of 
C., and then began an unprecedented growth. 

The Jewish Welfare Board activities at Great Lakes 
were conducted along lines adopted by the Central Of- 
fice in New York and were, in general, typical of what 
was being done throughout the country. The program 
of aid was divided into four lines of action religious, 
personal service, educational, and social and recrea- 
tional. 

Recognition that the Jewish sailors represented vari- 
ous shades of belief was taken into consideration in the 
religious work, and the services were so arranged that 
all could participate in full conviction. Daily service 
for mourners were held whenever called for. Sabbath 
service was in the hands of the Jewish Chaplain at 
Great Lakes. Special services were held on the festi- 
vals. In September, 1918, during the New Year's and 
the Day of Atonement, some nine hundred Jewish sail- 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 195 

ors in Incoming Detention, who could not be granted 
furloughs, were served with three meals under the aus- 
pices of the Jewish Welfare Board. The forces serving 
these meals were made up of the women in the neighbor- 
ing towns, who acted as hostesses for the occasion. 
During the Feast of Lights, several affairs, which were 
highly successful in point of attendance and general 
spirit of happiness, were held in the camps. 

Personal service was the outstanding feature of the 
work of the Jewish Welfare Board. The transition 
from civil to military life brought in its wake many 
problems for adjustment, all of which had to be ade- 
quately met, if the morale of the sailor was not to be 
impaired. In this service, the family as well as the in- 
dividual was given consideration. In a word, the field 
workers of the Jewish Welfare Board endeavored to 
enter into the inner life of the man, discover his particu- 
lar need and answer it. No one, Jew or Gentile, was 
ever turned away; no case was too trivial or too big to 
handle. 

Due to a delay in building, the Jewish Welfare Board 
at Great Lakes was handicapped to a considerable ex- 
tent in carrying out educational activities. However, 
through the splendid cooperation of the Y. M. C. A. and 
other organizations, rabbis and laymen were given the 
opportunity to address the boys from time to time on 
various subjects of interest to all. Social and recrea- 
tional activities, in common with the work of the Y. M. 
G. A. and the K. of C., were greatly stressed. The 
Lutheran Brotherhood gave over its equipment every 
Thursday night to the Jewish Welfare Board. 

A large Jewish Welfare Board building was com- 



196 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

pleted at Great Lakes at about the time the armistice 
was signed. The field secretary of the Jewish Welfare 
Board at Great Lakes was Mr. Jacob Turner. 

THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE WAR RELIEF AND CAMP 
WELFARE COMMITTEE 

This organization placed a camp worker at Great 
Lakes to render special and individual service to the 
officers and enlisted men who were interested, as mem- 
bers or otherwise, in the Christian Science movement. 

The twofold object of the service was to supply to the 
men such spiritual aid as could only be given by one 
of their faith, and to cooperate with other workers in 
looking after their general welfare. 

The Christian Science camp welfare automobile car- 
ried officers and enlisted men with their baggage to dis- 
tant parts of the camp; met relatives at the trains and 
put them in touch with their men, and served otherwise 
in many emergencies. The Camp Welfare Worker 
made purchases in nearby towns for men in Incoming 
Detention; maintained correspondence with relatives 
whenever necessary, and rendered many other personal 
attentions which in the aggregate constituted a service 
approved and appreciated by both officers and men at the 
Station. 

Under the heading of Maintenance of Morale might 
be classed the work accomplished in helping the men to 
adjust themselves to the newly found conditions of mil- 
itary life. Many boys, leaving home for the first time, 
experienced a sense of loneliness and homesickness a 
condition favorable to discontent. A friendly call from 
the camp worker, with a word of encouragement and a 
little talk on the importance of the service in which he 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 197 

had enlisted, left many a boy with a larger vision and a 
keener desire to become an efficient fighting unit. The 
value of a man imbued with this idea had a far-reach- 
ing influence among his shipmates, as was well appre- 
ciated by the officers in command. 

The Christian Science War Relief and Camp Wel- 
fare Committee wishes to express its appreciation of 
the cooperation given by all departments at Great Lakes. 
By courtesy of the Medical Staff at the U. S. Naval Hos- 
pital permission was obtained to visit patients at all 
times. 

Especial credit was due to the Senior Chaplain, Cap- 
tain Frank Thompson, U. S. N., whose long experience 
in the Navy and kindly cooperation made possible the 
broad field of our achievement. 

THE LUTHERAN BROTHERHOOD 

From the very beginning of the Lutheran Brother- 
hood work at Great Lakes it was felt that it would be 
necessary to erect a suitable building as headquarters. 
Finally, through the kind offices of Captain Moffett, 
permission to erect such a building was obtained. This 
building was completed in the summer of 1918, and be- 
came very popular. Its auditorium could seat 1200 
men. The social room was provided with books, current 
magazines, games of various kinds and many writing 
tables. On Monday and Friday nights picture shows 
were given, and every Tuesday night there was a con- 
cert, in which prominent musicians from Chicago per- 
formed. Wednesday nights were devoted to mid-week 
prayer service with a brief address. The Jewish Wel- 
fare Board was allowed to use the building on various 
occasions for dramatic and musical entertainments. 



198 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Saturday nights were given over to the Roman Catholic 
sailors, who came to their priests in the confessional. 

The Lutheran pastors detailed to duty at Great Lakes 
were four in number the Reverend Ernest Lack, H. 
H. Kumnick, Carl Weswig, and John A. St. Clair, all 
ordained Lutheran clergymen. 

In all the camps the Lutheran services were well at- 
tended, attesting to the necessity of such services. The 
religious registration cards filled out by the young sail- 
ors entering Incoming Detention showed that 7250 Lu- 
theran boys had enlisted. Of these, about 2400 par- 
took of communion. 

THE SENIOR CHAPLAIN, U. S. N. 

All of the religious work at Great Lakes, of whatever 
denomination, came under the direct supervision of 
Captain Frank Thompson, Corps of Chaplains, U. S. N. 
This fine chaplain, the dean of the U. S. N. Corps of 
Chaplains, turned a "listening ear" to all the other chap- 
lains, advising them of the ways of the Navy and the 
manner in which they could most effectively "carry on." 

To the great relief of Chaplain Thompson, the Rev- 
erend Charles W. Moore, a Naval Militia Chaplain from 
Missouri, reported for duty early in May, 1917. At 
about the same time a Catholic clergyman from Chi- 
cago, recommended by the Archbishop of that City, was, 
by authority of the Commandant, given charge of the 
men of Catholic faith, under the Senior Chaplain's di- 
rection. Representatives of other denominations, with 
accredited letters from the churches which they repre- 
sented, reported from time to time, and were allowed by 
the Commandant to assist the Senior Chaplain in his 
work. 



THE WELFARE ORGANIZATIONS 199 

At the time the armistice was signed the religious 
forces at Great Lakes consisted of six commissioned 
Navy chaplains and twenty-one civilian pastors. The 
spirit of perfect harmony and accord which dominated 
the religious work at Great Lakes, on the part of the 
chaplains, civilian assistants and Y. M. C. A. workers, 
was most marked, and was wholly owing to the true 
Christian spirit and hearty cooperation of all con- 
cerned. 



CHAPTER XII 

ENTERTAINING THE "GOBS" 

YOUTH makes a great appeal, wherever it is met. 
Couple this with the fact that Great Lakes 
America's greatest City of Youth is located at 
the very doors of the e:reat Mid-Western metropolis, 
and you have the reason whv Chicago and the other 
Lake Shore communities, including Milwaukee, fairly 
overstepped themselves in providing entertainment for 
the thousands upon thousands of young: sailors. 

Because of its proximity to Great Lakes it came about 
that Chicago, located a thousand miles from salt water, 
saw more sailors than soldiers, and. therefore, took more 
sailors into its homes and clubs. Also the fact that the 
greater number of these sailors were under twenty-one 
years of age enthusiastic boys who joined the Navy 
because they were too young for the Army made a di- 
rect, simple appeal to every home. 

To set 45,000 young bluejackets down at the doors of 
a city and say: "Here they are, provide healthful en- 
tertainment for them while they are on 'shore leave,' ' 
was no small order. Yet not one sailor at Great Lakes 
got "All dressed up and no place to go." 

On Thanksgiving Day, 1917, for instance, thousands 
of bluejackets were guests of Chicago and its suburbs. 
The invitations received were five times as many as could 
be filled. Chicago and the other communities surround- 
ing it proved to be wonderful hostesses, in their clubs, 

200 



ENTERTAINING THE "GOBS" 201 

hotels and private homes. Rothschild and Company 
served a dinner to five hundred sailors ; the Chicago Ath- 
letic Club entertained two hundred; the Illinois Athletic 
Club, one hundred and fifty; the Union League Club, 
one hundred; the South Shore Country Club, one hun- 
dred; the Casino Club, seventy-five; the Congress Club, 
fifty; the Edgewater Beach Hotel, two hundred > (> the 
Blackstone Hotel, one hundred; the Palmer House, fifty,; 
and several thousand private homes entertained any- 
where from one to five bluejackets. 

Early in the morning on that day, the young sailors 
detailed to the different clubs, hotels and private homes 
drew up in company or squad formation in the Main 
Drill Hall and passed in review before Captain Moffett. 
Then they boarded trains for Chicago, and were met at 
the different stations by representatives of their host- 
esses. After dinner, they were entertained at dances 
or at theatres. 

How Chicago felt about it all may be taken from such 
expressions as the following, clipped from the Chicago 
newspapers: "Jackies make City Thankful, and Vice 
Versa" "Chicagoans and Sailors make Day Memor- 
able by Celebration" "Jackies find way into Hearts and 
Homes of City" "Thanksgiving Events form new 
Bond of Sympathy." 

All of which was only a phase of what the cities anjd 
communities in the vicinity of Great Lakes did for the 
young sailors. The North Shore suburbs of Chicago 
were as thick with bluejackets as they were with citizens. 

There was probably no other camp in the United States 
that received more war-camp hospitality than Great 
Lakes. Every boy who went through Great Lakes felt 
its impress. 



202 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Almost before it was realized that war was on, thou- 
sands of youths just out of high school had enrolled 
themselves in the Navy. They had sent their civilian 
clothes home, donned the blue of the Navy, taken the 
three "shots" in the arm, and begun their training. 

For once, Chicago and the other communities along 
the North Shore were almost caught napping so quickly 
had the youth of the Middle West rushed to Great 
Lakes. The boys who enlisted during the first few days 
of that relentlessly soaked and shivering spring of 1917 
went to sea without testing the joy of the cheery glow 
of a sailors' club, or the happy hours at some Saturday 
night dance, where scores of girls helped the young sail- 
ors forget that they were homesick. Few of these 
earliest recruits had a chance to toast their toes at the 
fireside of Chicago's hospitality, or to encompass a home- 
cooked dinner at a home where some other boy's mother 
did the best she could to take the place of an absent 
mother. 

' ' During every week end, when the thousands of young 
sailors were granted "shore leave," the big city by the 
lake rubbed its eyes and took notice. The doors of 
thousands of homes in Chicago and the North Shore 
communities swung open ; hundreds of clubs opened wide 
their doors, and many war-camp organizations set to 
work to provide and equip new gathering centers. 

On special holidays, such as Thanksgiving, Christ- 
mas and New Year's, more invitations were received 
than could be accommodated. At such times, after thou- 
sands of invitations had been accepted and the sailors 
apportioned off, as many as 15,000 requests for blue- 
jacket guests had to be turned back with regrets. 

In December, 1917, the War Recreation Board of 



ENTERTAINING THE "GOBS" 203 

Illinois was organized, in compliance with the request 
of the War and Navy Department Commissions on 
Training Camp Activities. This board first undertook 
to correlate the activities of the various organizations 
and groups of individuals engaged in providing hos- 
pitality and entertainment for the enlisted men. To 
keep the men advised of the various entertainments of- 
fered, the War Recreation Board began the publication 
of a weekly bulletin, in which the events in Chicago and 
vicinity were listed. About 20,000 copies were dis- 
tributed on the Station each week, and it was a common 
sight to see the sailors reading and checking off the at- 
tractive items among the scores of functions listed. 

The War Recreation Board of Illinois, realizing the 
need of a club house, established the Central Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Club at 207 West Washington Street, Chi- 
cago. This club house a four-story building was 
provided with every convenience. It was opened in 
March, 1918, and its success was assured from the very 
beginning. . It became the central meeting place and 
headquarters of thousands of sailors going into Chicago 
every week. 

During the summer months of 1918 this club became 
so crowded that it was necessary to establish a second. 
In consequence, the Khaki and Blue Club, located in 
Grant Park, on Chicago's lake front, was begun in Au- 
gust by the Red Cross. This spacious and splendidly 
equipped club house was opened for use the latter part 
of September, 1918. The average number of men using 
these two clubs each week was over ten thousand. 

A third club house was established in Chicago in De- 
cember, 1918, at 3033 South Wabash Avenue, for the 
special use of colored men in the service. 



204 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

The work of the War Recreation Board of Illinois 
was extended to cover all the North Shore communities 
as far north as Waukegan, a city of 20,000 people four 
miles north of Great Lakes. This board assisted in the 
establishment of clubs in Waukegan, Lake Bluff, Lake 
Forest, Highwood, Highland Park, Glencoe, Ravinia, 
Hubbard Woods, Kenilworth, Wilmette, Evanston and 
elsewhere. These clubs were financed, wholly or in 
part, out of funds provided by the War Recreation 
Board. This board also promoted or helped to finance 
various forms of hospitality within a hundred or more 
miles of Great Lakes. In each one of the communities 
mentioned a representative committee was appointed 
and made responsible to the parent board for the organi- 
zation and operation of its camp community service or- 
ganization. 

During November, 1917, the total attendance at the 
various clubs was 22,950. During August, 1918, the 
total attendance was 207,824 and during January, 1919, 
two months after the signing of the armistice, the at- 
tendance was 279,784. 

The name "War Recreation Board" was changed in 
the summer of 1918 to "War Camp Community Serv- 
ice," in compliance with a request of the War Depart- 
ment Commission on Training Camp Activities, thus 
establishing a uniform name for this work throughout 
the country. 

The work which this board was doing grew to such 
an extent that increased funds were needed, notwith- 
standing the fact that much of the assistance furnished 
was gratuitous. In February, 1918, a campaign to 
raise additional funds netted $537,398. Of this amount 
$241,138 was used locally. In November, 1918, the 



ENTERTAINING THE "GOBS" 205 

War Camp Community Service was one of seven or- 
ganizations included under the head of United War 
Work Activities, and the people of Chicago and the 
North Shore responded in overwhelming measure in the 
money-raising campaign. 

The recruits who reported at Great Lakes were not 
allowed liberty for twenty-one days the period spent 
in Incoming Detention. But during that time they were 
made acquainted with the good things which were com- 
ing to them when their first period of Navy Life was 
ended. For those twenty-one days they looked out of 
barrack windows, or through the iron-mesh fencing that 
surrounded them, at the train-loads of happy sailors 
"shoving off" for beach parties, swimming parties, au- 
tomobile rides, home-cooked dinners and the like, and 
each day they studied the bulletin published by the W^ar 
Camp Community Service to learn just where to go 
when they received their first "shore leave." 

In Chicago the Central Soldiers' and Sailors' Club pro- 
vided up-to-date conveniences, such as shower baths, a 
barber shop, a reading and writing room, billiards and 
pool, and dancing. Many sailors who went into Chi- 
cago from Great Lakes without fully knowing what 
they wished to do with their "liberty" were given in- 
vitations at the Central Soldiers' and Sailors' Club for 
theatres, dances and home dinners. 

As the sailors surged through the Chicago and North- 
western Station in Chicago, thousands of them sought 
out the splendid club rooms furnished by this railroad in 
its terminal building. This work, although not under 
the auspices of the War Work Community Service, was 
of similar nature. This club afforded the sailor a de- 
lightful place to spend the afternoon or evening, as it 



206 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

was provided with reading and writing rooms, pool, 
billiards and other games. It was a place where, if he 
thought his whites were not quite presentable, he could 
scrub and dry them, and take a hot shower while they 
were drying. Then, garbed in his clean outfit, he could 
apply at the office for a ticket to the theatre, a dance or 
a home dinner. If he had a check which he wanted 
cashed, there was always money in the safe. If he met 
with accident during his visit in Chicago, he could get 
emergency treatment or medical attention at this club, 
of which Lieutenant H. W. Moore, Medical Corps, U. 
S. N., R. F., was detailed as supervising officer. 

One of the first canteens opened in Chicago was es- 
tablished by the Chicago Woman's Club. Contrary to 
precedent the Chicago Public Library allowed the Chi- 
cago Woman's Club to use a part of its building to con- 
duct a canteen for the enlisted men on Saturdays and 
Sundays. This proved a very popular place for the 
sailors. 

The Home Folks' Canteen, at the Randolph Street 
entrance of the Chicago City Hall, was open daily from 
1 1 a. m. to 9 p. m. under the auspices of the Council of 
State Societies of Chicago. 

The American Red Cross Canteen the Khaki and 
Blue Club opened its doors day and night for men 
traveling under orders. The women working in this 
club could be depended upon, day or night, to serve hun- 
gry and tired enlisted men who were passing through 
Chicago. 

The home hospitality of Chicago was ultimately 
placed in the hands of a hospitality committee. Through 
this committee the private homes of Chicago opened 
their doors to receive the soldiers and sailors. These 



ENTERTAINING THE "GOBS" 207 

homes started out to entertain the sailors, and, according 
to their own verdict, ended up by being entertained by 
the sailors. This home hospitality took as many differ- 
ent forms as the initiative and personality of the hosts 
and the recipients engendered. Sometimes, it simply 
meant a good dinner, leaving the sailor to go where he 
liked afterwards. With others, it meant the inviting in 
of young women and an afternoon or evening of dancing 
or games. Sometimes the house was turned over to the 
sailors and they went to the kitchen with the girls to get 
up a Sunday evening supper. This seemed to please 
the men more than any other kind of hospitality. 

Another kind of home hospitality grew out of what 
were called "church parties." The various churches 
throughout Chicago and the North Shore opened their 
doors to the enlisted men. As many as two hundred 
sailors were often invited to a service. Whether the 
number of men invited to a church was ten or a hundred, 
a committee of that church arranged for them to go to 
the homes for dinner. 

The clubs, both city and country, made a remarkable 
record for hospitality. Many of them extended all 
privileges to the sailors, and on special occasions, such 
as Christmas, Thanksgiving and like holidays, dinners 
and special dances were given. Prominent among the 
Chicago organizations in this work were: the Chicago 
Woman's Club, the Chicago Athletic Association, the 
Illinois Athletic Club, the Hamilton Club, the Union 
League Club, the Chicago Club, the College Club, the 
City Club, the Woman's Athletic Club, the University 
Club, the Standard Club and the Casino Club. 

The hotels of Chicago entertained the sailors on many 
special occasions, and every day found the sailors at 



208 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

home in their lobbies and writing rooms. The news- 
papers of Chicago got behind every movement whose 
purpose was to entertain the sailors, helping to a great 
extent to make them possible. 

The theatres and theatrical people did their bit. 
Vaudeville stars, grand opera singers, and many actors 
and actresses appearing in Chicago gave their services 
freely, not only by taking part in programs in the City, 
but also by coming to Great Lakes to give performances 
in the huge drill halls and in the open-air theatres lo- 
cated in the ravines. Every Sunday afternoon some 
one of the Chicago theatres have a special performance 
for men in uniform only. One of the greatest treats 
was made possible by the Chicago Grand Opera Associa- 
tion. One hundred tickets for each performance of 
grand opera, running through a season of ten weeks, 
were put at the disposal of the men in uniform. On 
these tickets even the war tax was taken care of. In 
addition, many more men were allowed the pleasure of 
witnessing Grand Opera by simply paying the war tax. 

Among the war service organizations and regular 
clubs in Chicago which furnished various kinds of hos- 
pitality to the sailors, were : the Chicago Woman's Club, 
the Opera Club, the Chicago Woman's Aid, the Woman's 
Athletic Club, the Soldiers' and Sailors' Club, the Khaki 
and Blue Club, the Red Cross Canteen Service, the Chi- 
cago Political Equality League, the Chicago College 
Club, the Chicago Sinai Temple Sisterhood, Jochanna 
Lodge, the Three Arts Club, the Catholic Social Center, 
the Edgewater Catholic Woman's Club, the Woman's 
Church Federation, the Woodlawn Woman's Club, the 
Arts Club, the Sister A Sailor League, the Chicago His- 
torical Society, the Comforts Forwarding Committee, 



ENTERTAINING THE "GOBS" 209 

the Swedish Club, the Indiana House, the Garfield 
Girls' Navy Recreation Club, the Allied Arts' Unit, the 
Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., the Jewish Welfare Board, 
the Knights of Columbus, the Oak Park Woman's Club, 
the River Forest Woman's Club, 'the Daughters of the 
Republic, the Girls' Friendly Group, the Daughters of 
the British Empire, the Commonwealth Edison Group, 
St. Paul's Parish, the North End Woman's Club, the 
West End Catholic Woman's Club, the Home Folks 
Canteen, the Ravenswood Woman's Club, the Girls' Pa- 
triotic League, the Renaissance Club, the Woman 
of Ida Noyes' Hall, University of Chicago, the 
Open House of St. Paul's on the Midway, the 
Lake Shore Park House, Marshall Field & Com- 
pany group; the Daughters of 1918, the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern Railroad Club, the Chicago 
Hebrew Institute, the Twenty-first Ward Woman's 
Club, the Woman's City Club, the Natika Club, the Pub- 
lic Library Canteen, the Sunday Evening Club, the Al- 
liance Franchise, the Art Institute, the Public Library, 
the Austin Group, the Oak Park Group, the Norwood 
Park Group, the Roger's Park Group, Maywood Re- 
becca Lodge 376, the Patriotic Girls' Navy Recreation 
League, the Insurance Exchange Building Group, the 
Allied Red Cross Unit, the Colored Boys' South Side 
Club, the Young Woman's Social Welfare, the Illinois 
Federation of Woman's Clubs, the Chicago Athletic 
Association, the Illinois Athletic Club, the Hamilton 
Club, the Union League Club, the University Club, the 
Chicago Club, the Casino Club and the City Club. 

If Chicago, with her great opportunities and equip- 
ment, lavishly entertained the bluejackets, this was no 
less true of the towns and cities all along the North 



210 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

Shore. Especially noteworthy in their hospitality were 
Evanston, Wilmette, Kenilworth, Winnetka, Glencoe, 
Ravinia, Highland Park, Highwood, Lake Forest, Lake 
Bluff, North Chicago, Waukegan, Kenosha, Racine and 
Milwaukee. 

Milwaukee, although farther removed from Great 
Lakes than these other cities and communities, was not 
to be outdone. In addition to entertaining thousands 
of sailors to home hospitality every week-end, she pro- 
vided clubs for them. Many Milwaukee women, not 
working in any special organization, arranged parties 
and dances for the sailors and gave them under the aus- 
pices of the Wisconsin Players' Club and the Milwaukee 
Art Institute. Many dinners and dances were given at 
the Milwaukee Country Club. 

Racine, although counted among the smaller cities, 
was proud of its Soldiers' and Sailors' Club, where all- 
night accommodation jvas provided for sailors, as well 
as many other features, such as reading rooms, shower 
baths, etc. So anxious were the people of both Racine 
and Milwaukee that no sailor should be kept away from 
their parties because pay day was far off, that special 
"no-fare" trains were often provided for them. 

Waukegan, a city of 20,000 people, called the "Camp 
Town" because of its proximity to Great Lakes, was 
fairly swamped with sailors, particularly when pay days 
were furthest off and railroad fare to Chicago was lack- 
ing. During the five crowded months of 1918, Wau- 
kegan, through her war work activities, entertained an 
average of 26,875 sailors a week. The Jolly Tar Club 
furnished rest rooms, pool tables, conveniences for 
pressing and mending clothes, and reading and writing 
rooms. The Navy Club was open daily, and supper was 



ENTERTAINING THE "GOBS" 211 

served on Saturdays and Sundays. The Jewish Wel- 
fare Board gave a supper and dance every Saturday 
night. The churches furnished old-fashioned socials, 
entertainments and refreshments. The Young Wom- 
an's Patriotic League gave an entertainment and served 
refreshments on Sunday afternoons and evenings. The 
Glen Flora Gold Club opened its links to the men and 
officers from Great Lakes. The Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. 
C. A., and the fraternal organizations, such as the Ma- 
sons, Odd Fellows and Woodmen, furnished entertain- 
ment, dances and lounging places for the bluejackets. 

Lake Forest the home of the Gold Stripers was 
also the rendezvous for thousands of bluejackets. For 
many months the Y. M. C. A. served a supper every 
Sunday evening, followed by community singing with 
young women of Lake Forest acting as hostesses. The 
War Emergency Union furnished a large clubroom 
which became a popular place for sailors. Electric 
irons were provided for pressing clothes. One of the 
unique activities located in Lake Forest was the Army 
and Navy Tea Shop. This beautiful and cozy club 
house was furnished and operated through Mrs. Ogden 
Armour's kindness. Its specialty was table d'hote din- 
ners, served every night and at noon on Sundays, at a 
price far below cost. After dinner there was a cheer- 
ful fireplace, a piano, victrola, writing materials, maga- 
zines and games. Several bedrooms were available for 
emergency use. The Lake Forest Cottage for mothers 
of sick boys, who could not afford a hotel, did much good 
work, particularly during the influenza epidemic. At 
the Onwentsia Hunt Club series of dances were given. 

At Ravinia, the fine pleasure park where the Chicago 
Symphony Orchestra plays during the summer months, 



212 THE GREAT LAKES TRAINING STATION 

and in which abbreviated grand opera is given, threw its 
gates open to the sailors. The sailor's uniform ad- 
mitted him, and supper, music, dancing and like enter- 
tainment were provided besides the opera performances. 
The cost of all this was defrayed by the hundreds of 
subscribers of the Ravinia Park Association. 

At Highwood, the Business Girls' Club of the Patri- 
otic League gave Saturday night dances and entertained 
the sailors on Sunday afternoons. Highland Park's 
Army and Navy Center provided pool and billiard 
tables, reading and writing rooms, and a cafeteria. 
The Deerfield Shields High School, located in High- 
land Park, gave a dance every Saturday night, with 
refreshments and an entertainment. It also provided 
vaudeville and moving picture shows, canteen service 
and cots for men who desired all-night hospitality. In 
Winnetka, the Community House furnished supper, 
dancing, and instruction in dancing. Wilmette, 
through its Army and Navy Club, gave canteen service 
on Saturday nights, followed by a dance under the 
auspices of the Girls' Patriotic League. Evanston had 
a "Home Port Blighty" which was open on Sundays. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



Form L9-32m-8,'58(5876s4)444 



T 



Buzz ell - 



434 Great Lakes 
G7B98 Naval Training 



Station 



V 

434 

G7B98 




A 000705283